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Thursday, May 29, 2008

THE USE OF IRRADIATION FOR EXTENDING THE STORAGE LIFE OF CAVENDISH BANANA (Musa pa,adisiaca).

The experiment was conducted in order to determine the appropriate irradiation dose forextending the storage life of fresh banana. The experimentalbananas (cavendishvariety)were obtained from the farmersin Ciseeng, Bogor. The middle bunch of banana was choosen for irradiationwith the dose of 0, 0.25, and 0.5 kGy andstored under temperature 20°C and relative humidity 85 - 90%.Toevaluatethe qualityof banana,severalparameterswere examined namely, total sugar content, ascorbic acid content, texture and visual test. The results of this experimentrevealed that total sugar content obtained during storage can be used as an index to evaluate the ripeness of banana.Based on the physico-chemicalanalyses and visual test, it can be concluded that the dose of 0.25 kGy is quite effectiveto extend the storage life of banana from 20 days up to 35 days. Rosalina S.H., Rindy P.r., dan Darmawi; Pusat Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi, BATAN

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CROSS PROTECTION BETWEEN VIRULENT Pseudomonas so Qnacearum AND THE IRRADIATED ONE BY GAMMA RAYS ON TOMATO PLANT.

Bacterial wilt caused by Pseudomonas so anacearum is aserious problem on tomato plant. Plant which are infected by a virulent microbe could resist infection of the pathogen.Irradiating microbe by gamma rays is expected to weaken the pathogen, so it could be used for protecting the plant frompathogen infection. The result of this experiment showed thatP. so/anacearum irradiated by gamma rays at doses of 0.4until 0,8 kGy could protect infection of virulent P. so/anacearum, but the ones irradiated 1.0 until 8.0 kGy could not. I. Djamika clan E. Suwadji; Sub Bslithorti Segunung, Pusst Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi, BATAN

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PELUANG DAN TANTANGAN BIOTEKNOWGI TANAMAN NASIONAL MENJELANG ABAD KE-2l

Tantangan yang dihadapi bangsa Indonesia menjelangabad ke-21 khususnya tahun 2020 adalah penambahanpenduduk menjadi 288 juta jiwa, 50 % penduduk tersebut berdomisilidi kota, peningkatan kebutuhan pangan berasmenjadi 30,8 juta tonltahun, pengalihan fungsi lahan subur pertanian beralih ke lahan sub marginal, peraturan aturanWTO (iso, Patent), persepsi masyarakat yang negatif terhadap basil rekayasa genetik, permasalahan biosafety,foodsafety daDlingkungan.Peluang bioteknologinasional pun cutup besar. Peluang itu hempa peningkatan pendapatanpenduduk Indonesia (US $3500 per kapita per tahun pads tahun 2018), peningkatan pasar sub regional (AFTA),regional (APEC) dan global, peningkatan kemajuan IPTEK, dan kerjasama luar negeri. Visi bioteknologi tahun 2020adalah mendukung pertanian modem, tangguh, berkelanjutan, raffish lingkungan yang berbasiskan IPTEK daDagribisnis. Sumbangan bioteknologi adalah memproduksi propagul unggul bermutu dan merakit kultivarlldon tanamanunggul yang relevan terhadap pembangunan pertanian tersebut Rekayasa gen apometik untuk memantapkan sifatsiCatmerupakansuatu revolusi pertanian abad ke-21 nanti. Revolusi apometik stan menguntungkan bagi petani danpelaku pertanian di negara berkembang. G.A. Wattimena; Laboratorium Bioteknologi, ]urusan Budidaya Pertanian,Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor.

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THE USE OF INTERSTOCK ON RAMBUTAN (Nephelium lapaceum L,) PROPAGATION.

The constrainof conventional propagation of rambutan is mainly caused by variability of the stocks from seedlings. The use ofinterstock was studied in order to observe compatibility between stock and scion, and also between stock, interstock andscion. The experiment was arranged in a Factorial Randomized Block Design consisted of two factors. The first factorwas interstock cv. Sitangkue (with and without interstock). The second factor was scion varieties (Binjai, Rapiah, LebakBulus, and Simacan). The variety of stock used was Sinyonya. Compatibility was detected by tracing translocation of 32pfrom growth medium to stock, interstock and scion. This work indicated that compatibility between stock cv. Sinyonyaand scion cv. Simacan either with or without interstock cv. Sitangkue was better than those with scion cvs. Binjai, Lebakbulus, and Rapiah. Activity of 32pon stocks, scion twigs and leaves using interstock was lower compared with those without interstock. Ismiyati Sutarto, M. Winarno, dan Soertini Gandanegara; Balai Penelitian Hortikultura Solok, Pusat Aplikasi Isotop dan Radiasi, BATAN

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SEED STORAGE ABILITY OF SOME SOYBEAN MUTANT LINES.

Soybean seeds with good storageability are desirable as long as the storage method used is still conventional. The genetic of seed storage ability wasstudied from some mutant lines of soybean.The enforced ageing method with95% ethyl alcohol (ethanol) was treated tothe seeds. The seed viability was influenced not only by the treatments but also by seed size. Small seeds tended topossess high viabilityand its deteriorationwas slower than bigger seeds. The environmentalfactors were more dominantIn controlling the storage ability than the' genetic ones. Heritabilities for seed viability were found to be 5.84% forgerminating ability and 7.20% for growth ability. Mutation breeding for improved seed storage ability seems to bedifficult to conduct. Soeranto and Ishak; Pusat Apliksai Isotop dan Radiasi, BATAN

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Wednesday, May 28, 2008

Some characteristics of cross-linked hydroxypropyl sago starch

Sago starch was laboratory hydroxypropylated using 1% propylene oxide in alkaline condition, then cross-linked using 0.000-0.025% phosphorus oxychloride. The dual modified starches with level of cross-linking ranging from 0.0000 to 0.0186 were characterized for amylographic properties, swelling power, paste turbidity and in vitro digestibility using porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase. The cross-linking procedure applied to dual modification nearly unchanged the pasting temperature, i.e. at 62.5drajatC. Cross-linked, hydroxypropyl starches with DS more than 0.0150 had similar amylographic properties which showed high heat and shear stability of the paste. Cross-linking resulted in decrease in the swelling power and the in vitro digestibility of the starch. Hydroxypropylation prior to subsequent modification facilitate the cross-linking with a consequence of lower pasting temperature, higher maximum viscosity, higher swelling power and lower digestibility. Haryadi and Kapti Rahayu Kuswanto; Faculty of Agricultural Technology, UGM

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Bugs, Diseases and Problems

Extreme failure of the plants is pretty rare. Usually too much or not enough water, a shortage of fresh air or a cold room are the cause. Smaller problems can be bugs or nutrient dosage.
BugsIf you spot animals in your plants, kill them off with regular bug spray. Go to your local garden store and find a cure for the particular bug that can be used on fruit bearing plants. When you get bugs in the last few weeks of the flowering period, remember you will probably be smoking the stuff later on. You might even choose to just let the bugs be. After the harvest, clean out your room thoroughly. An alternative is using natural enemies of the bugs. See a specialist for this.
Nutrient problemsWhen during the early stages of growing the leafs of the plants turn weak and yellow or start showing yellow spots, try adjusting the dosage of nutrients. You might be seeing a shortage of nutrients, so adding some more to the water might do the trick. Don't overdo it!
When the plants have curled up leaves and look like they have been burnt, you might have given too much nutrients. Stop giving the nutrients for a while, but give some extra water to flush out the excess nutrients.
Remember that soil that has been used multiple times could need some extra nutrients and fresh soil probably needs less.
Rotting budsWhen you spot some rotting in your buds, you know the air is too moist and probably too cold. Try adjusting the airflow of the desk fan to reach the buds. Cut out the bad pieces of the rotting. If you don't, it will spread like a bonfire. Leaving dead leafs in the buds will increase the risk of rotting.

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Maintenance

Our trained technicians will visit regularly as required - weekly or fortnightly for indoor plant hire, and monthly or quarterly for landscape maintenance. Plants are dusted, trimmed, watered, fertilised and replaced as necessary, to make sure they always look their natural best. Indoor pots and outdoor garden beds are also cleaned and maintained to their optimum appearance. Green & Growing prides itself on a continuing and comprehensive service which is unrivalled in the industry. (green&growing)

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Tips for Making Your Time in the Garden More Enjoyable; 5 Ways to Make Gardening Easier

Some of these tips are common sense and some may seem like more work in the short term, but they all really will make gardening easier for you. And that way you'll have time to create even more gardens!
1. Feed the Soil You've heard it a thousand times, but do you do it? Start with great soil and you'll wind up with great plants. Healthy plants get less diseases, attract less insect pests and require less water. Plus you won't have to remember to fertilizer every other week.
Start with a good analysis of your existing soil. You can have all the essential nutrients tested or just the pH. Many nurseries provide this service as well as your local Cooperative Extension Service. If your soil is deficient in any minerals or nutrients, amend the soil according to recommendations. Then keep adding organic matter, like compost, regularly.
Slow release, organic fertilizers can help supplement deficient nutrients. But feeding plants with synthetic fertilizers can actually destroy the beneficial organisms and organic matter within soil and only provide a short fix. It's like turning your garden into a drug addict. It will need regular doses of fertilizer and more and more to get the same effect.
2. Group Plants by Their Needs I'm sure you've heard the saying "Right plant for the right spot." That's the beginning of the equation. Of course you're going to want to put sun lovers in the sun and ground covers where they can roam. But consider how efficient it would be if you put all your water hogs together so you could just turn on the sprinklers or drag the hose to one area and be done. The same goes for plants that require a lot of deadheading or vegetables that need to be harvested daily or hourly, like zucchini. You can still mix in different bloom times and variations in color, form and texture. It's just the heavy maintenance chores that should be consolidated.
3. Choose Lower Maintenance Perennials There will always be primadona plants you have to have (although probably less and less of them as you get older), but make the backbone of your garden perennial flowers that can take care of themselves. Plants like Astilbes and Sedums, that look good all season and don't need deadheading, pinching or staking. Here are even more low maintenance perennials.
4. Raised Beds & Containers It's much easier to control your garden if it has definite boundaries. Containers provide the ultimate in control. You control the soil, water, exposure and even limit the growth of the plants in the container. Raised beds separate the garden beds from their surroundings. Ideally, lift the beds up by 6 inches or more. You'll have the benefits of controlling your borders and you'll be saving your back from some bending.
5. Install Drip Irrigation This is one of those suggestions that sounds like it's going to cost a fortune and require a professional to install - and it can. But it doesn't have to. They've reduced drip irrigation to a tinker toy level. Believe me, if I can grasp it, so can you. There is an initial cost, although no where near what you might fear, and you will need to do some measuring. But unless you rely solely on rain to water your gardens, you will actually save money in the long run. Drip irrigation is far more efficient than any other type of watering. Plus it puts all the water right where your plants need it. Add an inexpensive timer and think of all the time you've saved yourself. Check out this FAQ on Irrigation Systems and Water Conservation over at About Landscaping

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A new home: getting them in place

Fill all the big 7 litre pots with the soil you got. Leave some three fingers room from the top. We have to add water later. Now get the small plants and carefully take them out of the smaller pots. Make sure not to break any leafs or roots as you do so. Make a hole in the soil of the new pot about the size of the small pot, chuck a gulp of water into the hole and put in the plant. Now press the soil around the plant gently but firmly. Make sure all the roots are covered. When the plants are firmly placed in the new pots, add about half a litre of water to all. Now lift the pots and remember their weight. You could even use a kitchen scale and write it down. All pots should be about the same weight and during the whole growing and flowering stage they should remain about the same. You can now place them in their final location under your large lamp. Keep the light on a 18h of light and 6h of darkness cycle and start the desk fan and ventilation system to simulate the wind. Check on your plants every day, keep the soil moist and check all systems for failures. Check to see the leafs move a bit because of the desk fan.

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Monday, May 19, 2008

Plant your azalea....

Plant your azalea in early spring or early fall. If your soil is loose, well drained, and has lots of organic matter, planting will be easy. If drainage is poor, youll need to correct the drainage problem or plant in raised beds. You can work in some well-rotted leaf mold or compost if the soil is short of organic matter. Don't worry about preparing the soil deeply since azalea roots are shallow and most are found in the top foot of soil. Instead, loosen the soil in a broad area around the planting site. If a soil test reveals that your soil is strongly alkaline, work in enough iron sulfate or ammonium sulfate to drop the pH to 4.5 to 5.5; your state's soil testing lab can give you guidance on how much of these materials are needed to acidify your soil. Water the pot thoroughly before planting and tease the soil away from the roots on the outside of the pot. Don't worry about injuring the roots it's more important to remove a significant amount of the potting soil than it is to keep every root intact. Plant the azalea slightly higher than the surrounding soil since it will probably settle after planting. Finally, water the whole area thoroughly and apply a thin layer of shredded leaves, pine needles, or pine bark to keep the soil cool and moist. Water your newly planted azalea weekly if the weather is dry, at least for the first year. Why isn't my azalea blooming?picture of the walled Morrison Garden Too much nitrogen in early summer may encourage vegetative growth at the expense of flower bud formation, so limit fertilizer applications to the fall or spring or skip the fertilizer all together. Although azaleas are well adapted to partial shade, deep shade produces spindly, weak growth and few flower buds. Azaleas usually won't flower well if planted under trees with dense foliage, such as maples, beeches, and pines. Plant in the diffused light under widely spaced, high-crowned trees like oaks and tulip poplars. Deer and rabbits may eat many of the flower buds as they browse in the winter, particularly if the weather is harsh and other food is scarce. Flower buds can also be damaged by cold, dry winds, particularly when warm winter weather is followed by a period of bitter cold.

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Urine Manusia dapat digunakan untuk pupuk

Urine ternak digunakan sebagai pupuk organik sejak zaman Yunani kuno. Kini Pradhan Helvi Heinonen-Tanski dan beberapa mahasiswa peneliti dari University of Kuopio, Finlandia menggunakan urine manusia yang dianggap murah, tersedia melimpah dan efektif para ilmuwan memastikan urine dari individu yang sehat: setril, bebas bakteri atau virus, serta secara alami kaya nitrogen dan nutrisi lainnya. Mereka mengumpulkan urine manusia dari perumahan dan menggunakannya sebagai pupuk tanaman kubis. hasilnya pertumbuhan dan bobot kubis lebih tinggi dibanding yang menggunakan pupuk sintetis. Tidak ada perbedaan kandungan gizi pada kubis. Urine manusia tidak mengubah rasa maupun mengancam kehegienisannya .

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Bagaimana mempertahankan bisnis yang berdasarkan tren?

Ini fenomena pop marketing. Kalau fenomena pemasaran yang biasa, suatu produk melalui siklus produk yang panjang. Pada pop marketing, dalam siklusnya terdapat gejolak-gejolak. Trennya sangat pendek, kira-kira 2-3 tahunan. Suatu produk yang terlalu dipacu agar cepat melejit di pasaran, akan cepat hilang pula. Untuk mempertahankan cukup sulit. Yang bisa dilakukan adalah mengambil keuntungan sesaat. Selalu membeli pada saat harga akan naik. Begitu menjadi berita besar lepas semua produknya dan kemudian beralih ke komoditas lain. Ikuti saja tren. Jika ingin aman, main di produk yang abadi. yang abadi itu harganya murah, konstan, tetapi yang beli ada terus. silahkan dicoba kiat ini. semoga sukses.

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Tuesday, May 06, 2008

ANTHURIUM CARE

Anthuriums are relatively easy to grow, have attractive foliage and under the proper environment, produce long lasting flowers year round. Commercially, pot type Anthuriums are grown throughout the world with the heaviest concentrations in the US (Florida) and the Netherlands. They are durable and will survive as an indoor foliage plant for a remarkable period of time, even under adverse conditions. Anthuriums grow best with day temperatures of 78 to 90 F, and night temperatures of 70 to 75 F. Temperatures above 90 F may cause foliar burning, faded flower color, and reduced flower life. Night temperatures between 40 to 50 F can result in slow growth and yellowing of lower leaves. Anthuriums will not tolerate frost or freezing conditions. POTTING Anthuriums prefer a growing media that is coarse and well drained. The potting media should be of a peat moss base with a 1:1:1 ratio of peat moss, pine bark and perlite. Plants when they are youong should be planted in a mix that is not quite so coarse, to retain moisture. The soil should be settled firmly around the roots and the root system should fill the pot before the plant is stepped up to a larger pot size. WATERING While Anthuriums are able to handle dryness around the root ball, they need to be watered thoroughly and allowed to dry slightly before watering again. Allowing the plant to dry out will greatly slow down the growth cycle. Drying out can also cause the tip to burn and root damage, while over watering can also cause root damage and sudden yellowing of leaves. LIGHT Anthuriums as a rule (indoors) will take about as much light as you can provide them with-but not direct sunlight. Lower levels of light will slow down or cease flower production. The foliage type species will tolerate lower light levels as they grow in some of the shasiest areas in their natural habitat. Leaves emerging under lower light may stretch and/or become distorted. FERTILIZER A quick word on nutrition. Most growers use a slow time release fertilizer on their plants. Fertilizing should not be an issue for quite a few months. If you are going to fertilize, use a light solution of a 3:1:2 ratio and it is probably best to dilute to 1/4 strength. PEST AND DISEASE Anthuriums are susceptible to the usual pests that visit out indoor plants, such as aphids, scales, mealybugs and thrips. Thrips and "mealy" are found more on new growth. You can also find aphids feeding on the flower buds. Scales seem to be particularly fond of the tough bird nest type. The best method of insect control is to monitor your plants and treat them before they get out of hand. There are some "insecticidal soaps" which work well on the soft insects, but scales may need a stronger insecticide. Under low humidity conditions spider mites may show up. One of the best ways to stay clear of the use of chemicals is with periodic wiping of the foliage and a gentle sparay of water. Make sure not to forget the undersides.

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Premium Red Anthurium


Anthurium, from anthos, meaning flower, and oura, meaning tail, refers to the many tiny true flowers that form in the yellow tail-like spadix. These bright red heart shaped beauties are the most well known the world over

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True Indoor Bonsai by Fuku Bonsai

We are proud to offer True Indoor Bonsai trees developed and grown by Fuku-Bonsai. Fuku-Bonsai is recognized in the world bonsai community for their exceptional quality, and uniquely Hawaiian bonsai style. The popular Dwarf Schefflera Arboricola Lava Rock Plantings are ideal starter stock for those wanting to grow indoor bonsai. It meets the two basic rules for selecting starter stock: 1) It is a proven house plant to grow indoors, while many traditional bonsai trees are �outdoor� plants, making them more difficult for the beginner. 2) Each plant is trained for 2-4 years before rock planting, so it already has some "character," with branches and established surface and/or aerial roots. The plant is also much more durable.

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Pemupukan Anthurium? Organik atau Kimia?

Sedikitnya ada 11 email yang mengajukan pertanyaan senada, yang masing-masing intinya manakah yang lebih baik untuk Anthurium, organik atau kimia ? Secara sederhana jawabannya adalah kombinasi keduanya dengan dosis yang tepat, untuk merk dagang mana yang paling bagus rasanya kurang pas kalau saya posting disini, kesimpulannya pupuk kimia tidak ada masalah selama sesuai dosis pemakaian. Untuk pupuk organik lebih minim efek samping yang merugikan, hanya saja mungkin proses sterilisasi yang kurang maksimal, khususnya pupuk kandang. Kelebihan pupuk juga tidak berakibat buruk pada tanaman, beda dengan pupuk kimia yang pasti mengakibatkan efek samping apabila over dosis. Pupuk kimia yang banyak tersedia dalam berbagai bentuk antara lain cair, bubuk, butiran, dan stick/batangan harus diperhatikan cara pemakaian dan dosis yang tertera pada kemasan. Pupuk kimia sifatnya mempercepat, meningkatkan, menggenjot pertumbuhan akar, daun, atau pembentukan buah/biji, jadi perbedaannya dengan organik ibaratnya perbedaan anda minum jamu kuat atau menggunakan doping. Lebih aman yang mana ? pasti lebih aman pakai organik. Lebih baik yang mana ? relatif penggunaan dan dosis tentunya. Sederhananya begini, pupuk kimia merupakan hasil dari kemajuan teknonogi yang diciptakan setelah proses eksperimen dan penelitian para ahli yang tentu saja lebih baik daripada teknologi di belakangnya. Yang tentu saja kandungan unsur hara makro dan mikro dapat diketahui dengan jelas. Naik sepeda lebih aman dan tanpa polusi, tapi menggunakan mobil bisa lebih cepat sampai tujuan dan tidak kehujanan atau kepanasan. Yang harus diperhatikan, waktu ideal pemberian pupuk dengan penyemprotan adalah di pagi hari jam 06.00-09.00 atau sore hari jam 16.00-18.00, jangan melakukan penyemprotan ketika terik matahari atau tanaman baru terkena sinar matahari bisa menyebabkan daun terbakar, layu atau datangnya jamur. Penyemprotan bisa dilakukan 2 minggu sekali, untuk slow release bisa 3 bulan sekali dengan ditaburkan saja atau dibenamkan dalam media tanam. Semoga Anthurium anda selalu sehat dan indah dipandang…(Deni Lurniawan)

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Trend Tanaman Hias 2008

Sampai saat ini belum ada survey yang menyebutkan penggemar tanaman hias apa yang lebih banyak. Sebelumnya adenium disebut sebagai tanaman hias yang mempunyai penggemar paling banyak, disusul aglaonema dan tanaman hias lain. Tetapi setelah kemunculan booming Anthurium, penggemar Anthurium juga menyebut komunitas Anthurium lah yang terbesar. Yang harus dicatat, meledaknya Anthurium belum ada dalam sejarah tanaman hias Indonesia ada jenis lain yang menyamainya. Tentu saja wajar jika persaingan trend tanaman hias sangat ketat, masing-masing komunitas berusaha sekuat tenaga untuk melambungkan jenis tanaman hias yang mereka kembangkan. Di tengah harga Anthurium yang mulai terkoreksi dan menata diri, berbagai macam event pameran, berita media cetak, elektronik mulai gencar menyemarakkan kembali dunia tanaman hias di Indonesia. Ada perkembangan yang cukup berarti dalam jual beli tanaman hias, yang jelas dipengaruhi meningkatnya daya beli dan siklus tahunan yang sudah saya bahas sebelumnya. Adenium mulai diperbincangkan, Aglaonema yang sempat di-tidur-kan Anthurium juga mulai gencar di beritakan media. Berikutnya jenis sansevieria yang diramal akan meramaikan pasar.Dan Anthurium yang sempat mengalami kelesuan pasar juga mulai menggeliat kembali. Di sini saya lebih membahas Anthurium karena saya juga pemain Anthurium, mendekati bulan Februari dan Maret penjualan Anthurium diberbagai event khususnya daerah Jawa mulai meningkat, meskipun masih belum bisa dibandingkan booming di taun 2007. Tapi setidaknya apa yang pernah saya bahas sebelumnya perlahan-lahan mulai mendekati kenyataan. Permintaan jenis Anthurium berwarna yang paling terlihat, sementara jenis jenmanii masih relatif mahal dijangkau hobiis pemula atau end user. Semakin banyaknya varian baru yang bermunculan juga menjadi salah satu penyebabnya. Dan para hobiis banyak yang mengalihkan buruan ke jenis-jenis yang lebih murah dan terjangkau, khususnya jenis hokeri yang berwarna merah dan hitam, permintaan pasar mulai meningkat. Anthurium gelombang cinta yang kembali ke harga normal juga mulai meramaikan pasar. Untuk tingkat kolektor, jenis-jenis langka yang selalu diburu, antara lain Anthurium yang mengalami mutasi bentuk ataupun mutasi warna ( variegata ). Untuk jenmanii varian ular-ularan masih menempati kelas teratas disusul oleh jenis jenmanii Supernova yang sampai saat ini masih menjadi kontroversi mengenai manakah yang lebih asli dari beberapa indukan Supernova yang ada di Indonesia.. Sementara Anthurium berdaun oval juga mulai banyak di buru jenis mangkok, kol, pagoda dll permintaannya lebih tinggi dibandingkan jenmanii berdaun lancip atau memanjang. Kesimpulannya, jenis tanaman hias apa saja ( aglaonema, adenium, sanse dll ) akan mengalami peningkatan, jenis apakah yang akan berada dipuncak ? Mungkin bisa dilihat antara bulan Mei-Juni . Terlalu subyektif kalau saya mengatakan Anthurium tetap kokoh dipuncak, anda bisa mengatakan tulisan saya adalah politik dagang tapi bisa di bandingkan dengan berita beberapa media cetak yang cukup besar dan terpercaya dan berbagai survey di berbagai ajang pameran besar di beberapa kota di Indonesia. Deni Kurniawan

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Acokanthera oppositifolia (Lam.) Codd

Common names: Bushman's Poison; Boesmansgif (Afrikaans); inHlungunyembe (Zulu); iNtlungunyembe (Xhosa) Family: Apocynaceae The Bushman's poison is a medium to large woody shrub with attractive hard dark green leaves. Clusters of pinkish white, sweetly scented flowers are borne in late winter and spring and are followed by large plum coloured berry-like fruits which are relished by birds. The name Acokanthera is derived from the Greek and refers to the sharp anthers of the flowers. The species name refers to the opposite arrangement of the leaves. Usually found growing in the shade of other vegetation on forest margins woodland and bush clumps, this species is widespread over many parts of the country with the exception of the drier parts. The milky sap of this plant was widely used by the traditional bushmen (Khoisan) to form part of the cocktail used to poison the tips of their notoriously toxic arrows in hunting. All parts of the plant are highly poisonous with the possible exception of the ripe fruits. This plant is used medicinally to treat snake & spider bites, intestinal worms and also for aches and colds. Growing Acokanthera oppositifolia The Bushman's poison is a hardy drought and frost resistant evergreen shrub that tolerates full sun or shade and also does well as a container plant. Propagation of this species is from seed or semi-hardwood cuttings in the months of September to October. This shrub is one of three South African members of the genus, Acokanthera. It belongs to the same family as many popular sub tropical ornamental plants such as frangipani, allamanda and oleander as well as the impala lily and num num. This family is characterized by having sweetly scented flowers and sticky milky sap which is often poisonous. Andrew Hankey; Witwatersrand NBG

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Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop

Family: Asparagaceae (Asparagus family) Common name: Asparagus fern, emerald fern, basket asparagus Asparagus densiflorus is an extremely versatile perennial, evergreen plant that can be used as a groundcover or container plant in full sun or light shade. Although there are many striking and beautiful South African Asparagus species, most of them have horrendously large or sharp spines. A. densiflorus has only very small, hardly noticeable spines and is an excellent garden plant. DescriptionAsparagus densiflorus is a scrambling, slightly woody plant with upright or trailing branches up to 1 m long. The appearance of the plants varies enormously and has led to the naming of a large number of cultivars or forms. The best known forms belong to the so-called emerald ferns of the Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri' group. These plants form large cushions with long, arching stems more or less densely covered with dark green, needle-like leaves. The plants of this group can be used as groundcovers in shade as well as in full sun, or in large containers or hanging baskets. The cultivars 'Cwebe' and 'Meyersii' form more upright plants, particularly 'Meyersii', which looks very different, with its compact cat's tail-like fronds. Asparagus densiflorus flowers are small, most often white or pale pink and are very sweetly scented. The flowers are not very noticeable, as they are half hidden by the foliage and do not last long. They flower for about two weeks during the summer season, in South Africa as well as in the Northern Hemisphere. The flowering of the plants can be rather erratic, with the plants having a good flowering year on average only once every three years. The small flowers are followed by showy bright red berries, which each have one large black seed in them. The berries are attractive to birds and may be spread by them. DistributionAsparagus densiflorus grows in the coastal areas in the southeastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal in a wide range of habitats, from coastal dunes to open rocky places or woods. It can be grown in USDA zones 9-10 and is hardy to -7°C (20 oF). Name and historyThe genus name of Asparagus is thought to be derived from the Greek Asparagos for the cultivated asparagus and is possibly derived from 'a-'- intensive and sparassa - to tear, referring to the sharp spines of many species. The species name of densiflorus refers to the way the small flowers are densely packed along the stem of the plant. The earliest record of a South African asparagus is an illustration from 1686, while plants from the 'Sprengeri' group were introduced into cultivation as early as 1888. They are now grown all over the world and have proved hardy, drought tolerant and even fairly salt tolerant plants which can be used as garden plants or for cut foliage. The South African Asparagus species are related to the European Asparagus species and have a botanically very interesting structure. The so-called leaves are not true leaves at all, but are actually cladodes and are thought to be modified branches, while the spines are formed from modified branches or from modified leaves. There are about 69 species in southern Africa, possibly 30 to 40 in tropical Africa and also some in Asia. They are widespread and common but are not often collected because of the short flowering period and the presence of the spines. UsesOne other South African species that is widely cultivated is Asparagus plumosus, which has flat, feathery short stems and used to be found in almost every bunch of cut flowers as foliage. Some of the South African Asparagus species are used as vegetables or for medicinal purposes. The berries cause only low toxicity if eaten. When the berries are crushed, skin irritation is minor, or lasting only for a few minutes. Growing Asparagus densiflorus Asparagus densiflorus grows in most soils and is fairly drought tolerant, but does much better in soil which is rich in organic matter and is watered regularly. To rejuvenate the plants, they can be cut back after flowering. At this time a thick mulch of compost can be spread around the plants. Asparagus densiflorus 'Sprengeri', 'Flagstaff' and 'Mazeppa' are excellent as a groundcover, especially in full sun. 'Sprengeri and 'Flagstaff' form long, arching branches of up to 1 m in length and can reach a height of 60 cm, while 'Mazeppa' forms a very compact dark green mat and looks very attractive in containers as well as on sloping garden walls. When these three cultivars are grown in shade they become long-stemmed with a wide distribution of the leaves. When grown in full sun, the plants become much more sturdy and dense. Asparagus densiflorus 'Meyersii' is known under a variety of names, i.e. 'Myers', Asparagus meyers, Asparagus meyeri, with the common names of cat's tail asparagus or foxtail fern. It grows to a height of 60 cm with long, soft branches arising from a central point to form a very ornamental plant, looking equally good in a container, as a feature plant or in a mass planting. It looks best when grown in shade or semi-shade. Asparagus densiflorus 'Cwebe' is a more upright version of 'Sprengeri' with very graceful, upright, arching fronds with long needle-like leaves. The young fronds are a very attractive copper colour. This is the only cultivar that does not like sun and should be grown in light shade. The plants have extensive root systems with fairly large tubers, which are used in nature to provide food during long periods of drought in summer. They can be readily propagated by separating the tubers in fairly large clumps, or by sowing the seed in spring or early summer. The seed should be removed from the fleshy berries, placed in a suitable sowing medium in a warm spot or with bottom heating of about 25°C and kept moist. H.G. Jamieson; Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden

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Mengenal: ADENIUM MULTIFLORUM

Famili: Apocynaceae Nama Umum: impala lily (Ing.); impalalelie (Afr.). Adenium multiflorum adalah jenis adenium yang dikenal luas di Afrika Selatan. Ia berbunga di musim dingin, di saat hampir semua vegetasi cenderung ‘merehatkan diri’, A. Multiflorum justru tampil brilian dengan warna-warna putih, pink, crimson, merah, dan dwiwarna yang memenuhi seluruh tajuknya saat sedang bermekaran. Genus Adenium terdiri dari lima spesies sukulen dari daerah tropis Afrika, Arabia, dan Socotra. Formasinya yang menakjubkan sekaligus bunga indahnya yang kompak dan serempak serta mampu bertahan lama membuat genus ini dikenal sebagai tanaman hias. DeskripsiAdenium multiflorum berprofil semak atau pohon kecil setinggi 0.5-3m, bentuknya seperti miniatur baobab. Percabangan rimbun mencuat sejak dari bonggol yang berukuran besar dan tersembunyi di bawah tanah. Warna batang utama dan percabangannya kelabu terang hingga coklat, dengan getah lengket dan mengandung zat racun. Sepanjang tahun tanaman ini tidak banyak berbunga ataupun berdaun lebat. Panjang daun mencapai 100 mm, hijau cerah di bagian atas dan memudar di bagian bawah, biasanya ke arah ujung daun lebih melebar, dan berkelompok di ujung tunas-tunas pada percabangannya. Daun akan rontok pada saat akan berbunga.Bunga tumbuh dan mekar dalam kelompok-kelompok dompolan, tiap bunga berdiameter 50-70mm. Warnanya amat cantik, biasanya berpetal lancip warna putih dan tepi merah bergelombang, serta pola garis merah pada leher terompet. Kadang dijumpai bunga adenium multiflorum berwarna putih polos. Bunganya mengeluarkan aroma halus. Musim bunga berkisar pada bulan Mei hingga September. Buah normal berupa sepasang tanduk sepanjang kurang lebih 240 mm. Biji berwarna coklat dengan bulu halus di kedua ujung biji.Dalam daftar yang disebut Red Data di Swaziland, Zambia, dan Zimbabwe, Adenium (impala lily) dinyatakan sebagai keragaman hayati yang dilindungi. Penyebarannya sebagian besar terjadi pada musim gugur di Afrika Selatan di kawasan Taman Nasional Kruger. Perlindungan diberikan kepada adenium multiflorum karena pemanfaatannya sebagai tanaman koleksi, bahan obat-obatan, pembudidayaan, dan menjadi pakan hewan liar seperti misalnya baboon yang menyukai bagian akar. Distributsi dan HabitatDistribusi alami Adenium multiflorum meliputi Zambia tenggara, berlanjut ke Malawi, Zimbabwe dan Mozambique, Limpopo, Mpumalanga dan ke utara di KwaZulu-Natal di Afrika Selatan, serta Swaziland. Habitatnya meliputi wilayah tanah berpasir atau kawasan alluvium berbatu cadas, padang tandus terbuka ataupun padang rumput. Dijumpai terutama di dataran rendah dengan sedikit hujan dan di bagian timur Afrika Selatan, di selatan Sungai Zambezi, dengan ketinggian 1-200 m dpl. Adenium multiflorum tumbuh hanya di wilayah tandus Afrika Selatan, dengan penyebaran luas di Afrika bagian tengah dan Timur

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Pengendalian Hama Tanaman Adenium

Tanaman adenium selama pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya seringkali mendapatkan serangan hama. Timbulnya serangan hama ini tidak lepas dari faktor: (1) sumber makanan yang tersedia, dalam hal ini adalah tanaman itu sendiri dan gulma, selanjutnya (2) lingkungan, dalam hal ini musim. Apabila kedua persyaratan di atas tidak terpenuhi, maka hama tersebut tidak akan berkembang biak. Ditinjau lebih mendalam, hama yang menyerang tanaman adenium terbagi 2 musim, yaitu hama musim kemarau dan hujan. Hama yang muncul pada musim kemarau: (1) Spider Mites, (2) Thrips, (3) Mealybug dan (4) Root Mealybug. Sedangkan hama yang muncul di musim hujan adalah Fungus Gnats. Sebagai catatan: Hama-hama musim kemarau akan selalu ada bila tanaman adenium yang dibudidayakan dipelihara di dalam rumah plastik walaupun berada di musim hujan, karena selain sumber makanan tersedia, lingkungan yang panas/hangat juga mendukung. Pengendalian gulma dapat dilakukan dengan cara manual dengan pencabutan dengan tangan atau dengan menggunakan bahan kimia dengan menggunakan herbisida sistemik dengan bahan aktif Glifosat sesuai dengan konsentrasi anjuran. Pengendalian hama dengan cara kimiawi: Spider Mites Agrimec/Bamex/Schumec (bahan aktif Abamectin) : 0,25 - 0,5 ml/L Kelthane/Dicofan (bahan aktif Dicofol) : 0,5 - 1 ml/L Demiter/Samite (bahan aktif Pyridaben) : 0,5 - 1 ml/L Talstar (bahan aktif Bifentrin) : 0,5 - 1 ml/L Mitac (bahan aktif Amitraz) : 0,5 - 1 ml/L Thrips dan Mealybug Pegasus (bahan aktif Diafentiuron) : 0,5 - 1 ml/L Confidor/Winder (bahan aktif Imidacloprid) : 1 ml/L Metindo (bahan aktif Metomil) : 1 g/L Regent (bahan aktif Fipronil) : 1 ml/L Agrimec/Bamex/Schumec (bahan aktif Abamectin) : 0,25 - 0,5 ml/L Root Mealybug Diazinon/Sidazinon (bahan aktif Diazinon) : 0,25 - 0.5 ml/L Dursban (bahan aktif Chlorpyrifos) : 0,25 - 0,5 ml/L Fungus Gnats Agrimec/Bamex/Schumec (bahan aktif Abamectin) : 0,25 - 0,5 ml/L Trigard (bahan aktif Cyromazine) : 0,25 - 0,5 g/L Calypso/Provado (bahan aktif Thiacloprid) : 0,5 - 1 ml/L Catatan: Bila terjadi serangan berat, kecuali Root Mealybug, penyemprotan dilakukan 1 minggu 2 kali selama 2 minggu, selanjutnya 1 minggu 1 kali untuk perawatan biasa. Penyemprotan hama disesuaikan dengan hama yang dominan muncul. Kasus Root Mealybug, penyiraman insektisida dilakukan 1 - 2 bulan sekali. Pengendalian Root Mealybug selain dengan menggunakan insektisida adalah dengan mengganti media tanam setiap 6 bulan sekali. (Yudha Hartanto, MSi., diolah dari berbagai sumber)

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Pengendalian Lalat Buah

Lalat buah (Dacus sp.) merupakan hama yang menyerang tanaman buah mulai stadia buah masih muda dengan menimbulkan tingkat kerusakan yang parah saat buah menjadi matang. Kerusakan yang timbul dimulai dari lalat buah betina yang siap bertelur menyuntikkan telurnya ke dalam buah muda. Perkembangan selanjutnya adalah menetasnya larva berupa ulat yang memakan daging buah dan bahkan terdapat lubang kecil sebagai tempat keluar dari ulat tersebut. Dengan demikian buah akan membusuk dari dalam dan rontok. Langkah pengendalian yang paling mudah adalah dengan menjaga kebersihan sekitar tanaman buah ataupun kebun dengan membuang dan membakar sampah daun dan buah yang busuk, membungkus buah sejak dini yaitu saat telah menjadi buah kecil (fruit set) dengan menggunakan kertas koran, plastik, dan lain-lain. Namun langkah tersebut tidak mengurangi populasi lalat buah yang berkembang. Salah satu jalan adalah dengan menggunakan perangkap lalat buah yaitu Metil Eugenol. Metil eugenol merupakan feromon sintetis (buatan) atau hormon penarik (attractan) lalat buah jantan yang dipunyai lalat betina untuk mengadakan perkawinan. Cara kerja penggunaan feromon ini adalah dengan meneteskan 0,5 - 1 ml hormon ini ke potongan kapas yang dibentuk gulungan kecil dan digantung dengan menggunakan kawat, selanjutnya pada kapas yang sama diteteskan secukupnya (0,2 - 0,5 ml) insektisida seperti Diazinon, Dursban, Supracide, dan lain-lain. Penempatan gulungan kapas ini diletakkan di suatu tempat berupa botol aqua plastik yang pada bagian dasar botol dibuat berlubang untuk ventilasi, sehingga bau metil eugenol dapat tercium dua arah. Lalat yang tertarik dan menempel di kapas beberapa saat akan mati setelah bersentuhan dengan campuran metil eugenol dengan insektisida. Dengan demikian populasi lalat jantan akan berkurang, sehingga berdampak dengan tingkat keberhasilan panen buah yang berkualitas. Produk yang tersedia dalam bentuk cairan dengan merk Petrogenol, yang dikemas dalam botol 5 ml. (Yudha Hartanto MSi., diolah dari berbagai sumber)

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Kenapa Sansevieria Tak Bisa Booming?

Tak diragukan bahwa sansevieria mempunyai banyak penggemar, karakter bentuk dan motif warna juga beragam dan yang pasti tanaman jenis ini bisa hidup dimana saja. Tetapi, di realita pasar jenis ini sangat sulit untuk “dimainkan” untuk booming menyusul tanaman jenis lain seperti adenium, aglaonema dan anthurium. Sanseviera ada juga yang dihargai cukup mahal terutama jenis impor yang mengalami mutasi, sementara jenis-jenis lokal semakin redup. Berbagai event kontes juga seringkali diadakan diberbagai daerah, ekspos media juga tak kalah gencarnya, tapi pasar sanseviera belum menggeliat. Sebenarnya ada beberapa faktor penyebabnya sebagai berikut. 1. Jumlah yang sangat melimpahMudahnya cara perbanyakan jenis ini menjadi penyebab utamanya, selain dengan mengambil anakan, sanse bisa di perbanyak dengan memotong daun menjadi beberapa bagian selanjutnya ditanam dalam media dan akan menghasilkan banyak bibit baru. Permintaan pasar memang cukup besar, tapi stok yang sangat melimpah menyebabkan sansevieria sulit untuk naik pamor. 2. Tahan bantingKelebihan sanse adalah perawatan yang mudah, bisa hidup dimana saja, dan minim resiko kematian. Tetapi kelebihan inilah yang sekaligus menjadi kelemahan kenapa sanse tak bisa trend. Memang sanse bisa juga mengalami gangguan hama dan penyakit, tetapi tidak cukup untuk mematikannya. Resiko kematian yang bisa dikatakan hampir tidak ada dalam budidaya dan perawatannya membuat pasar sanse tidak bisa se-eksklusif jenis anthurium ataupun aglaonema. 3. Minimnya varian baruSanseviera di hargai cukup mahal apabila mengalami mutasi warna ataupun bentuk, karena jumlahnya memang sedikit sehingga kelangkaan barang tetap terjaga. Tapi pasar tanaman hias membutuhkan sesuatu yang baru untuk menarik minat pecintanya. Seperti adenium dengan bunga kuningnya, aglaonema dengan ragam hybrid silangnya, dan anthurium yang banyak bermunculan ragam hybrid yang luar biasa. Nah, inilah yang menyebabkan “ kebosanan “ dalam pasar sansevieria. 4. Pemain utama sangat terbatasDi berbagai event pameran/kontes jenis ini hanya terlihat sebagai “pelengkap” tanaman hias lainnya. Sansevieria langka dan berbanderol mahal hanya beredar diantara beberapa kolektor saja, pemain besar dijenis ini juga sangat minim, mereka menyetok sanse hanya untuk berjaga-jaga dan sebatas untuk melayani permintaan konsumen saja. 5. Tanaman hias sebagai simbol status sosialHanya orang yang mempunyai uang lebih saja yang mau merogoh koceknya untuk membeli tanaman hias berharga mahal. Selain berguna untuk penghilang stress, tanaman jenis mahal juga sebagai penambah status sosial dan memperluas pergaulan. Karena sanseviera dianggap kurang eksklusif dan dan nilai estetikanya tidak seperti aglaonema dan anthurium, maka jenis ini sulit untuk booming. Deni Kurniawan

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Tarchonanthus littoralis P.P.J.Herman

Family : Asteraceae (daisy family) Common names : coastal camphor bush ( Eng. ); kuskanferbos (Afr.); isiduli selindle (Xhosa); igqeba-elimhlophe, isidulu-sehlathi (Zulu). For a small evergreen tree that will thrive in windy, coastal conditions, through drought, and in nutrient-poor, sandy soil, look no further than Tarchonanthus littoralis. Readers may know it better as T. camphoratus, but a recent study has shown that T. camphoratus was made up of five distinct species that have now been individually named and described. The revised T. camphoratus occurs in the northern part of southern Africa whereas this recently defined species occurs along the south and southeastern coast of South Africa. Description Tarchonanthus littoralis is a large, dense, bushy shrub or small, shapely tree, 1–8 m tall. The trunks are often crooked, and the trees often multi-stemmed. The bark is vertically fissured and cracked, flaking off in narrow strips. Young growth is densely hairy. Leaves are strongly aromatic and leathery. The colour of the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves are distinctly different: the upper surface is dark green, hairy when young but becoming hairless; the lower surface is white-grey and covered in a dense mat of velvety hairs. The main vein is sunken, particularly in the lower half and the leaf contains a fine network of veins, which is clearly visible on both surfaces. The margin is very often faintly and minutely toothed in the upper part (on the Kirstenbosch plants, this is most easily seen on the young coppice growth). Tarchonanthus littoralis is dioecious, meaning that the male and female flowers are carried on different trees. Peak flowering time is during mid to late summer (December–March). On both male and female trees, the individual flowers are borne in small flower heads which are grouped into large, branched, terminal inflorescences. Male flower heads are 5–10 mm in diameter and contain 13–47 flowers, each tiny flower a 5-lobed, funnel-shaped tube, ± 3 mm long, with recurved corolla lobes. The anthers are ± 1.5 mm long and protrude beyond the tube. The male flowers have a sterile ovary and a long, protruding style (up to 8 mm), which is a noticeable feature of the flowers. The anthers are the striped structures surrounding the base of the style. The female flower heads are ± 5 mm in diameter and are made up of only 3–6 tiny flowers. Each flower is a 5-lobed, funnel-shaped, ± 2 mm long tube with recurved corolla lobes. The style is ± 3 mm long with 2 short branches, and protrudes beyond the corolla lobes. The fruit is an achene, ± 4 mm long and is densely covered in white, woolly hairs. Both the male and female flowers are white to cream-coloured but the bracts that surround the flowers and the stalks are creamy brown and so the overall colour of the inflorescence is a yellowish cream and the trees are attractive while in flower. A month or so after flowering, each female flower has become a cotton-wool-like ball of shiny white fragrant hairs, that fluffs out more as it matures. The small seed is buried inside the puff of white hairs. The brown star in amongst the woolly hairs is the remains of the corolla tube and style. The white fruiting inflorescences are extremely showy against the dark green foliage, and remain decorative for many months. While the female trees are still looking beautiful, the male flowers are dead and brown and the male trees are quite drab in comparison.

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Aloe polyphylla Schonl. ex Pillans

Family: Aloaceae; Common names: Spiral Aloe (English); Kroonaalwyn (Afrikaans); Lekhala kharatsa (seSotho) The spiral aloe is a rare and beautiful aloe from the high Maluti Mountains of Lesotho. It does not occur naturally anywhere outside Lesotho with the exception of one record on the Lesotho border with the Free State. There are apparently also unsubstantiated reports of it growing in the KwaZulu-Natal Drakensberg. The most striking feature of this aloe is the perfect spiral in which the leaves are arranged. This may be clockwise or anti-clockwise. The spiral is formed by five ranks of leaves which contain between 15 and 30 leaves each. The plants are stemless and usually not multiple although they grow in dense groups. It has become a prized collector's item and is possibly also used for muthi. Due to this and the specific habitat requirements, the numbers in the wild have diminished and it is now listed as endangered. The change in the water regime due to overgrazing is also a possible reason for decreasing numbers. Natural regeneration is from seed as the plants do not form off-shoots. Aloe polyphylla grows in high altitude grassland, between 2000 and 2500 metres - sometimes higher - although apparently only on the more easterly facing slopes at these higher altitudes. This could be due to the cold, where it may be important for the plants to receive early morning sun in winter. The plants are sometimes also under snow in winter. The spiral aloe grows in basalt rock crevices on very steep slopes with loose rock which aids in keeping the plants very well drained. They often grow in the mist and cloud belt in Lesotho. Although soils are well drained, the plants here have a continual flow of water in the summer months. The rainfall is very high and the summers very cool at these high altitudes in Lesotho. The leaves themselves are broad and have a grey-green colour. The tips usually become dark, purplish brown and are quite sharp. The margins are irregularly toothed. Plants have approximately 150 leaves each, which explains the name "polyphylla". "Poly" means "many" and "phylla" is Greek for "leaves". The flowers are attractive, ranging from dull red to salmon-pink. They may be yellow occasionally. The infloresence is branched with each flower head being quite compact. Plants usually flowers in spring and early summer. The species is extremely difficult to grow in cultivation. Plants which have been removed from their habitat usually do not survive for more than a few years. It is a criminal offence to remove plants or seed of Aloe polyphylla from the natural habitat or to buy plants from roadside vendors. by Alice AubreyWitwatersrand National Botanical Garden

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Manajemen Pengendalian Cendawan dan Bakteri Patogen pada Tanaman

Penyakit tanaman dapat berkembang dan menyebar bila kondisi seperti suhu dan kelembaban memenuhi syarat untuk berkembang, selain itu kondisi tanaman dan teknis budidaya juga berperan. Penyebab penyakit yang sering menyerang tanaman yaitu bakteri dan cendawan. Bakteri dan cendawan cenderung berkembang pada lingkungan yang mempunyai kelembaban tinggi (80%), dimana bakteri berkembang pada suhu tinggi (28oC), sedangkan cendawan pada suhu rendah (22 -25oC). Tanaman yang mengalami stres rentan terhadap serangan penyakit, stres yang dimaksud dapat dikarenakan (1) penggantian media baru dan (2) penggenangan air di daerah perakaran dalam jangka waktu lama. Faktor lainnya adalah salah pemberian pupuk (konsentrasi pupuk yang kurang/lebih dan macam pupuk yang salah). Pengaturan jarak tanam ataupun jarak antar pot tanaman di dalam membudidayakan tanaman juga mempengaruhi perkembangan dan penyebaran penyakit. Semakin rapat jarak antar tanaman memberikan resiko tinggi dalam penyebaran penyakit tersebut. Demikian pula dengan media tanam yang salah menentukan komposisi dan perbandingannya. Bila media tanam terlalu lembab dan kuat memegang air maka akan membuat akar tanaman membusuk yang dapat menjadi awal masuknya penyakit. Solusi selain mencegah dengan menggunakan fungisida dan bakterisida adalah dengan cara kontrol lingkungan dengan membuat lingkungan sekitar tanaman mudah teraliri udara, mengatur penyiraman air, pemberian pupuk yang tepat (konsentrasi,macam pupuk), mengatur jarak antar tanaman dan membuat media tanam tepat komposisi dan perbandingan. (Yudha Hartanto, MSi., diolah dari berbagai sumber)

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Acmadenia heterophylla P.E. Glover

Family: Rutaceae, Common Names: Buchu, BoegoeThis is a delicate looking shrub with starry pink flowers and a sweet lemony scent when touched. It belongs to the citrus family (Rutaceae) with most of the members commonly called buchu because of their aromatic leaves. Best known is the real buchu, Agathosma betulina, which is widely used in medicine. But this little shrub, Acmadenia heterophylla, also deserves a closer look from visitors and gardeners. Small and compact it grows to about 400 mm high, looking neat and green throughout the year. The dark green leaves are tiny with small hairs all along their edge and oil glands that emits the scent. Hardly ever without a flower, the bushes are covered with deep pink flowers at the tips of the stems during autumn, winter and spring. Each of the flower’s five petals has a prominent dark pink nectar guide leading to the centre of the flower. Visiting bees are usually the pollinators, but butterflies also visit the plants. Acmadenia heterophylla naturally occur on the hills and limestone outcrops around Bredasdorp, Caledon and Mosselbay in the southern Cape. Growing Acmadenia heterophyllaAcmadenia heterophylla easily adapts to growing in the garden where it requires full sun and well-drained soil. It will benefit from well prepared soil with compost and a thick layer of mulch. The plants also respond well to slow release fertilizer like 3:1:5. Although natural to limestone, Acmadenia heterophylla will also tolerate acidic soils. These are excellent plants for coastal gardens. The plants can be propagated by seed or cuttings, but both require some skill. Fresh seed must be sown in autumn. Cuttings have the advantage of producing a larger flowering plant faster than seedlings. Semi-hardwood cuttings, 50 to 70mm, are taken from the current year’s growth (August to early October). Prepare cuttings by making a clean cut below the node and remove the third of the foliage. Dip the base of the cuttings in a rooting hormone such as Seradix 3. Firmly place cuttings in a medium of 50% bark and 50% polystyrene. Ideally these cuttings should now be placed in an well-aerated propagation unit with a bottom heat of 24-degree Celsius. Rooting occurs in 9 to 11 weeks. Carefully pot the rooted cuttings using a well-drained humus rich fynbos potting medium (2 parts leafmould, 1 part coarse sand). Plants will be ready for planting in 7 to 8 months. Feed regularly with a well balance nutrient. Yellow leaves can be treated with an application of iron chelate. There are 33 species in the genus Acmadenia and they are mainly found in the southern and south western Cape. In this family, Rutaceae, of which the leaves of the plants are dotted with aromatic oil glands that produce fragrances unique to each species, there are also other interesting genera like Agathosma, Adenandra and Coleonema. Unfortunately these plants are not easy to obtain, but are sure to become more popular as they prove to be such excellent garden plants. Author: Liesl van der Walt

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"Waspada Dengan Nama-Nama Hybrid Baru (Deni Kurniawan Catatan seorang pemilik nursery)

Saat ini sudah tidak terhitung secara pasti jumlah hybrid baru dalam Anthurium, sejumlah nursery juga banyak mengeluarkan varian baru untuk mendongkrak nama dan penjualan mereka, ditunjang dengan banyaknya media cetak baru yang mengulas tentang Anthurium yang tentu saja menjadi ajang promosi yang efektif dan cakupan pasar yang lebih luas. Yang memprihatinkan, konsumen terbesar Anthurium yakni pemula/end user kurang mengerti dengan seluk beluk kelebihan dan kekurangan sebuah varian hybrid hasil penyilangan. Pengertiannya begini, persilangan antara dua jenis Anthurium ( species ) menghasilkan keturunan lebih banyak yang mirip dengan kedua induknya, sedangkan penyilangan sesama Anthurium hybrid kemungkinan bibit yang membawa karakter kedua induknya sangatlah kecil. Dalam persilangan selalu ada prosentase bibit unggul dan bibit yang kurang unggul ( tidak sesuai harapan ). Sementara induk yang berasal dari varian hybrid ( meskipun tanpa disilangkan ) akan menghasilkan banyak karakter yang tidak mirip dengan induknya, bahkan sama sekali berbeda dengan induknya. Nah, masalahnya banyak para breeder mengeluarkan varian baru ukuran remaja ( memang karakternya baru tidak seperti jenis lain ) kemudian mereka menyediakan bibit dengan nama yang sama ukuran 1,2,3 daun. Tentu saja banyak pemula tergoda dan segera memburunya dengan harga yang tentu saja cukup tinggi, dan di belakang hari mereka kecewa karena anthurium mereka tidak seperti yang di harapkan. Apakah para breeder melakukan penipuan? Bisa iya bisa tidak, mereka yakin sudah menyilangkan sesuai jenis yang disebutkan, tetapi memang resiko penyimpangan genetika kemungkinan sangat besar dalam persilangan. Memang ada sih, para breeder nakal yang melakukan penipuan, tapi rasanya kurang pas kalau saya kupas panjang lebar di blog ini. Intinya anda memahami dulu tentang seluk beluk hibridisasi dan pasti anda bisa lebih jeli dalam memilih anthurium yang anda beli. Hal diatas banyak terjadi terutama di varian hitam, Anthurium black series memang harganya selalu stabil dan menjadi koleksi yang ekslusif. Bahkan yang memprihatinkan ada sebuah tabloid/majalah tanaman hias yang mengupas tentang Anthurium Black Velvet yang disitu di tulis merupakan persilangan dari Gelombang Cinta Hitam dan Kuping Gajah (crystallianum). Perlu diketahui bahwa kedua tanaman memang sama-sama Anthurium tetapi beda SEKSI ( istilah ilmiah seperti Family, Genus dll ) dan persilangan berbeda seksi mustahil terjadi, jadi kesimpulannya tulisan tersebut merupakan sebuah kebohongan. Jadi berhati-hatilah dengan varian baru yang dibilang persilangan dari jenis ini dan jenis itu yang tentu saja dipilih varian unggul yang berharga mahal. Bahkan banyak yang secara asal-asalan menyebut hasil dari persilangan dua jenis tertentu, hanya dengan mengacu bentuk dan warna daun yang mengandung karakter induk yang disebutkan, padahal mereka tidak tahu pastinya. Semoga bisa menambah pengetahuan anda, dan para pemula bisa lebih paham dan jeli memilih Anthurium yang dibeli. Lebih amannya memang membeli Anturium ukuran remaja yang sudah terlihat karakternya, tetapi tentu saja dengan harga yang jauh lebih mahal tentunya.

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Afzelia quanzensis Welw.

Family : Fabaceae (subfamily Caesalpinioideae) Common names : pod mahogany, lucky bean tree ( Eng. ); peulmahonie (Afr.); iNkehli (Zulu); Mambakofi (Swahili) South African Tree No : 207 Afzelia quanzensis is a very attractive, medium-sized, deciduous tree, with bright green leaves that turn to an attractive yellowish colour in autumn. Its upright crown also complements its beauty, and the somewhat drooping branches resemble a eucalypt from a distance. DescriptionThe pod mahogany is a medium to large, deep-rooted tree, that may grow up to 35 m high, with a large spreading crown. Its somewhat straight trunk may be up to 1 m in diameter and has a grey-green or creamy grey, smooth bark that is beautifully patterned with raised rings that flake off irregularly, leaving circular patches. The new leaves, which are alternating, are usually copper-coloured and attractively glossy. They become dark green as they age. They are up to 300 mm long and are divided once, with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are sweet-scented, borne in erect clusters, and are green with pinkish red petals Large, brown, woody, flat pods, 170 mm long, are produced in late summer. In autumn they split open to release distinctively black seeds with scarlet arils. There may be up to 10 seeds per pod.DistributionAfzelia quanzensis is widespread. It grows in low altitude woodland and dry forests, usually in deep sand. Its distribution stretches from Northern KwaZulu-Natal, through to Limpopo, Zimbabwe and other neighbouring countries. It is also found in Somalia. Derivation of name and historical aspectsThe genus Afzelia was named in honour of Adam Afzelius of Uppsala, who lived in Somalia. The specific name quanzensis refers to the Cuanza River in Angola, w here the tree was first found. Afzelia quanzensis is a member the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (the Bauhinia subfamily). Members are characterized by alternate paripinnate leaves with usually opposite leaflets. Stipules that are rarely spiny are always present, especially in young growth. The flowers are relatively large and showier than those of other subfamilies. Uses and cultural aspectsThe light red-brown wood of the pod mahogany is hard and has a good grain. It has been used for building, making plywood, furniture, panelling and for flooring. Furniture made from this wood is traded under the name chamfuti. Wood is termite and borer resistant and can therefore be used for corner poles for fencing. The largest specimens of this species in South Africa have been felled and cut up for railway sleepers. Seeds of this tree are in great demand for ornaments and charms. They are often used as necklaces or made into trinkets and sold as curios. A root infusion provides a remedy for bilharzia and for certain eye complaints. An infusion made from roots and bark is believed to bring huntsmen luck if they wash with it. This infusion needs to be steeped overnight to be effective. Powered bark mixed with one's own body oil is believed to ward off attacks and bad luck. Ecology Eland and grey duiker browse the leaves of the pod mahogany. Elephants eat bark and leaves. The sweet-scented flowers attract a number of insects, which in turn attract insect-eating birds. Seeds are popular with rodents. Hornbills normally open freshly split pods to feed on the fresh arils. In the process, they discard seeds, which drop on the ground where they either germinate or are eaten by rodents. Larvae of most charaxes butterflies feed on the leaves of this tree. These include giant, large blue, blue-spotted and golden piper charaxes. Growing Afzelia quanzensis Seeds of Afzelia quanzensis germinate easily, usually with a rate of up to 80%. Sow in a seedling tray filled with a mixture of river sand and compost (5:1). Press into the mixture, cover lightly with soil, and keep moist. Germination may take two to three weeks. Seeds that are as old as ten years may still germinate if stored in a cool, dry place. Seedlings may be transplanted once they reach a two-leaf stage. They should be kept protected for the first two seasons in cold areas, as they are frost sensitive. Author; Mhlonishwa D Dlamini, Walter Sisulu National Botanical Garden

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Pengenalan Hama: Cara Makan dan Pengendaliannya

Hama tanaman mempunyai ciri tersendiri dalam melakukan aktifitas makannya. Aktifitas ini dapat dijadikan acuan penentuan jenis hama yang menyerang dan sekaligus pengendaliannya. Berikut disajikan macam cara makan dan gejala serta jenis hama yang menyerang: Menggigit - mengunyah daun/bunga sobek daun/bunga berlubang daun/bunga terpotong daun tinggal tulang daun kuncup bunga berlubang daun menggulung gerekan pada batang Menusuk - menghisap bentuk daun/bunga menjadi keriting daun menjadi salah bentuk permukaan atas daun menjadi kusam permukaan atas daun terdapat bintik yang kontras dengan warna daun permukaan bawah daun terdapat bekas luka tusukan terdapat substansi yang lengket seperti ?honeydew? permukaan atas daun terdapat lapisan hitam (jelaga) terdapat sarang seperti sarang laba-laba Meraut - menghisap bunga tidak membuka normal permukaan atas daun menjadi keperakan gugur bunga prematur Memarut/mengorok terdapat bekas korokan di permukaan atas daun menimbulkan puru (gall) Penjelasan hama yang menyerang dan pengendalian dengan insektisida Menggigit- mengunyah Jenis hama yang menyerang: Ulat, Kumbang dan Belalang Insektisida: Decis, Metindo, Sevin, Supracide, Larvin, Buldok, Baycarb, Furadan 3G- Dursban, Slamfast/Mitecut, Matador, Rizotin. Menusuk - menghisap Jenis hama yang menyerang: Aphid, Kutu Perisai, Whitefly, Mealybug, Root Mealybug, Spider Mites (Red Spider dan Two Spotted), Fruitfly (Lalat Buah), Fungus Gnats Insektisida: Pegasus, Confidor, Diazinon, Supracide, Matador, Metindo, Agrimec/Bamex/Schumec, Kelthane, Talstar, Demiter, Easy Clean, Curacron, Pro Leaf, Slamfast/Mitecut, Trigard, Jian Jing. Meraut - menghisap Jenis hama yang menyerang: Thrips Insektisida: Pegasus, Confidor, Curacron, Regent, Akodani, Easy Clean, Pro Leaf, Jian Jing. Memarut/mengorok Jenis hama yang menyerang: Leafminer Insektisida: Calypso, Confidor, Agrimec/Bamex/Schumec, Trigard, Provado (Yudha Hartanto MSi., diolah dari berbagai sumber).

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Adenandra obtusata Sond

Family: Rutaceae (Citrus family) Showy, white flowers that shimmer in the sun brighten up this evergreen shrub and attract insects, butterflies and bees to your garden. Belonging to the Rutaceae family (citrus family), Adenandra obtusata can be recognized by the scent it releases from oil glands when the leaves are touched or crushed. DescriptionAdenandra obtusata forms a robust, single stem upright shrub and grows to a height of 30-50cm. With its showy flowers and aromatic foliage it forms an ideal plant for your garden. The flowers buds are pink-red in colour and look like cherries on the bush. The reverse of the petals is flushed pink and the inside white, giving a very attractive effect. The flower has five petals marked with a purple throat. Flowers occur solitary or in clusters of up to 4 flowers at tips of branches and form glutinous (sticky) heads. They are subsessile (almost stalk less) or sessile (lacking a stalk). Peak flowering occurs from autumn to spring. Leaves are dull green, smooth on top with a clear whitish-green mid-vein below. Leaves are oval in shape, 5 x 3mm. Leaves are erect to spreading, oblong, overlapping (imbricate) with thickened margins rolled back and downwards (revolute). Look closely and you can spot a few glandular spots on the margin. Leaves closer to the tip of the branch are more crowded together. Young shoots develop at the tips of branches and these are ideal for cuttings. Fruit develop after flowering and are round capsules with 5-chambers bearing one shiny black seed per chamber. Seed heads become sticky. Seed are collected upon ripening when the seed capsule becomes harder and dark green in colour. DistributionAdenandra obtusata is endemic to Southern Overberg and grows naturally on rocky, coastal and inland slopes from Bredasdorp to Swellendam. It is found growing on coastal fynbos, flats and limestone hills at low attitudes and abundant on hard on exposed hills of hard limestone at Cape Agulhas. It only extends some 25 kms inland and is unlikely to be frost hardy, but the fact that it grows naturally in limestone locations suggests that it might be easier to cultivate in the garden than species from nutrient poor, acid sandstone. Derivation of name and horticultural aspectsThe genus name of Adenandra derived from the Greek meaning aden, a gland; ander, a man. The specific name means "blunted" and may refer to the leaves. EcologyThis plant is pollinated by insects. It is not clear what role the oil glands play. Uses and cultural aspectsAdenandra obtusata is best used as garden plant and flowering stems can be used in floral bouquets or in a mix bunch of flowers displayed in a vase. Growing Adenandra obtusata Adenandra obtusata is best planted as a filler plant between taller shrubs and a herbaceous border. Allow enough space to ensure growth and to prevent being squashed by faster growing plants. It requires a sunny spot, well-prepared soil, enriched with compost and a well-balanced fertiliser. Buchus naturally occurs in a mixed fynbos and ideally should be used in this way in a garden. Plant buchus with companion plants such as Restios, Pelargoniums, Helichrysum and smaller buchu species e.g. Acmadenia heterophylla, Agathosma ciliaris, Agathosma ovata “Kluitjieskraal”, Agathosma glabrata and Agathosma lanceolata. It can be used as a border plant, planted in masses, filler plant and as a good pot plant. Planting buchus into your garden is best done after the first good winter rains have started (May to August). Buchus respond to fairly dense plantings, which helps to retain soil moisture. An annual mulching of well-rotted compost is advised to reduce weeds and keeps the soil temperature low. Buchus can be grown from seed or cuttings. Fresh buchu seed is sown in autumn. The seed are sown into a tray containing a well-drained medium of equal portions of sand, loam and compost. Use some of the medium to cover the seed and water. Place in a covered area with good light and air circulation. Keep medium damp. Germination occurs in 1 to 2 months.
Young seedlings are pricked out into 0,5 l bags when 4 true leaves have developed, using a fynbos medium. Pinch out the growing tips of the seedlings to encourage bushy growth. Flowers are produced after two years. Cuttings have the advantage of producing a larger flowering plant quicker than seedlings. Tip cuttings, 50-70 mm, are taken from the current year's growth. Prepare cuttings by making a clean cut below the node and remove the third of the foliage. Dip the base of the cutting in a rooting hormone such as Seradix 2. Firmly place the cuttings in a medium of 50% bark and 50 % polystyrene. Ideally these cuttings should now be placed in an well-aerated propagation unit with a bottom heat of 24-degree Celsius. Rooting occur in 9 to 11 weeks. Carefully pot the rooted cuttings using a well-drained humus riched fynbos-potting medium (2 parts leafmould, 1 part coarse sand). Plants will be ready for planting in 7 to 8 months. Feed regularly with a well-balanced nutrient. Yellow leaves can be treated with an application of iron chelate. The genus Adenandra displays large showy flowers but is less scented than the other genera. There are 18 species found in this genus and endemic to the South-Western part of the Cape Province . Other interesting species Adenandra gummifera forms an upright single stemmed shrub and grows to a height of 0,4m to 1m. Bears white flowers with a pink reverse at the tips of branches. It is endemic to Bredasdorp and occurs on steep, sandstone slopes of Potberg. It grows in the same area as A.obtusata, but is found in the acid, sandstone locations whereas the latter prefers the limestone localities. Author; Norma Jodamus Kirstenbosch NBG

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Premium Obake Anthurium

The bi-color red green Obake Anthurium hybrids are definitely Hawaiian in origin, with our Hilo growers producing some of the most outstanding cultivars in the world. The name, Obake, is the Japanese word for ghost and suggests the dramatic variations among hybrids in form, size, and color. If you're looking for a real exotic show stopper, this is the ideal choice.

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Uses and cultural aspects (Tarchonanthus littoralis)

The five species that made up the Tarchonanthus camphoratus complex are widely used in traditional medicine. The leaves and twigs are used, either drunk in a tea or chewed fresh, to treat headaches, asthma, bronchitis, coughs, colds, flu and other chest ailments, rheumatism, internal bleeding, anxiety, indigestion, heartburn and other stomach troubles, and to relieve toothache. An ointment made with the leaves is used to soothe chilblains and sore feet and sometimes used to massage the legs before a long journey. In combination with wild sages, the Khoisan people used them to treat fevers and measles. The Khoisan people used to smoke the leaves as a dagga substitute (hemp, marijuana). The leaves are tied into hair to perfume the hair or rubbed into the scalp to keep the hair free of nits and dandruff or just for the perfume. Leaves and twigs are used as an insect repellent among clothing and linen. The fragrant, cottony seed heads are used to stuff cushions and pillows, which are said to be excellent for headaches and sleeplessness. Leaves tucked under the pillow are said to ensure a peaceful night. The wood burns, even when green, giving off a perfumed smoke. Burned leaves and seeds also give off perfumed smoke and are used to fumigate huts, and smoke is inhaled to treat rheumatism, headaches and sleeplessness. The wood is heavy and fairly hard, tough and termite-proof but is difficult to season and chop. It polishes well and has been used for musical instruments, cabinet work and is suitable for turnery. It is used for boat-building and to make yokes and yoke pins. It has also been used for the shafts of spears and bows, and for walking sticks. It makes a durable fence pole, said to stand for 30 years. The wood is said to be poisonous and capable of causing a septic sore on the skin that heals with difficulty. In Griqualand West, the old tradition was to surround the homestead with an outer fence made of thickly woven camphor bush sticks. In the modern home, its long straight coppice growth can be cut and used as sturdy garden stakes. Its leaves and seed heads can be used in potpourri or to perfume clothing or linen cupboards. Tarchonanthus littoralis is a quick-growing, small, dense tree. It has the ability to survive and thrive under harsh conditions that many other plants cannot tolerate. It can be planted to provide a windbreak, as a pioneer in a new garden to provide shade, and to bind the sand. Tarchonanthus littoralis also has excellent proportions for small suburban gardens, never getting too big, with a decorative trunk and shapely crown. It grows right beside the sea and tolerates salt spray, which makes it tailor-made for coastal gardens. It is ideal for difficult sites on the Cape Flats where it thrives in the nutrient-poor sandy soils, strong wind and summer drought. It is water-wise and can be planted in dry areas or in gardens that are not irrigated. It also does not mind being pampered in the average suburban garden. Plant in well-drained soil in a sunny position. Give it a good start with plenty of compost and water in its first few years. Once established, it requires very little attention. Prune to shape when young or keep tidy as it matures, and remove unwanted shoots from the base to keep the trunk clear. Gardeners looking for a female plant for the decorative fruiting heads, should either buy a plant bearing fruit, or learn to tell the difference between the male and female flowers. To achieve pollination and viable seeds, one must plant a male and a female tree. Tarchonanthus littoralis can be propagated by seed or cuttings. Seed is best sown when ripe in late summer to autumn or stored dry and cool and sown in spring to early summer. Seed is ripe when the fruits detach easily from the inflorescence, either by gently pulling or knocking them off. The seeds in their cotton balls can also be picked up from under the tree. It is virtually impossible to remove the seeds from their woolly covering and they can be sown with hairs still attached. Use a well-drained medium, sow the seeds thickly in a single layer and cover them lightly to stop them from blowing away. Germination takes 4–6 weeks with a 70–80 % success rate. Seedlings can be transplanted as soon as they are strong enough to handle. Take semi-hardwood cuttings in early summer, treat with a rooting hormone and place under the mist with bottom heat. Tarchonanthus littoralis takes a while to root and on average only half of the cuttings taken will root. AuthorAlice Notten; Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden, April 2008

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Aloe albida (Stapf) Reynolds

Family: Asphodelaceae Aloe albida is a dwarf aloe with small white flowers. This species likes misty mountain grassland habitats and thrives in crevices amongst mossy rocks in areas where grasses are kept fairly short. Description Aloe albida usually grows singly or in small groups. The leaves form a rosette and are about 150 x 4–5 mm. The leaves have a waxy coating, which gives them a pale greyish/bluish green colour. There is a single inflorescence (90–150 mm) with small white flowers, and the flowering time is sometimes as early as February, but is usually from late March to April. It is similar in size and leaf characteristics to A. saundersiae and has similar floral characters to A. myriacantha , although this plant is much larger and its flowers are dull pink (Reynolds 1950). Conservation Status This species has a conservation status of VU (preliminary assessment from SANBI's Threatened Species Programme) as a result of fairly recent population declines. The declines are as a result of habitat destruction through afforestation, invasion by weeds and by logging operations. Another threat leading to the population decline is over-harvesting from natural populations. Distribution and Habitat Aloe albida is found on the mountains in Barberton in Mpumalanga to the northern border of, as well as in parts of Swaziland . This species favours mountainous grasslands, where mists occur. The plants can be found in pockets of soil amongst or in crevices between damp, mossy rocks. Derivation of name and historical aspects: Aloe albida gets its name from its white flowers, the Latin word albida meaning whitish. EcologyAloe albida is dependent on fire to clear grasses from their preferred mountainous grassland habitat. In areas where grasses are too thick, this species suffers and will only be found in rocky outcrops where the grasses are shorter. Uses and cultural aspectsThis dainty grassland species is mainly used in horticulture where it makes an attractive dwarf pot plant and is fairly easy to cultivate. Growing Aloe albida Aloe albida grows well in cultivation under the right circumstances. This species grows well in terracotta pots and is an ideal container or pot plant. According to Craib (2005) the easiest way to propagate this species is using suckers or seeds. It is important to sow seeds in spring months, giving seedlings a chance to establish before the heat of summer. It is best to use fine soil. You should then add a small amount of both sieved, sandy soil and sieved, well-rotted leaf mould. Craib (2005) suggests dispersing the seeds evenly over the soil and cover lightly with some of the same soil mixture. The seeds should germinate within 2–4 weeks. However, some seeds will not germinate in the first year after they have been sown. Ensure that the seedlings receive adequate water, but be careful not to let them get too wet as this can lead to fungal infections. Keep the plants in light shade and in a well-ventilated area where they receive morning-only sunlight. It is essential to water these plants well throughout the growing season. However, in the winter they should only receive water when the weather is warm. Be careful not to let the containers overheat in summer as this can lead to a root mealy bug infestation. Author; Leigh Potter; TSP Pretoria

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Hama Dan Pengendaliannya

Tanaman dalam siklus hidupnya tidak terlepas dari serangan hama. Serangan hama muncul pada saat kondisi tertentu sesuai dengan habitat yang diinginkan. Habitat yang dimaksud adalah kondisi lingkungan seperti suhu, kelembaban dan sumber makanan. Secara umum populasi hama meningkat pada musim kemarau, dimana suhu tinggi (>28oC) dan kelembaban rendah (<60%) merupakan kondisi yang sesuai untuk berkembang. Perkembangan hama pada musim kemarau, selain sumber makanan yang tersedia adalah kondisi lingkungan yang sesuai untuk bertelur dan menetas. Sedangkan saat musim hujan banyak hama musim kemarau bertahan pada tanaman inang lain seperti gulma rumput atau bayam liar. Contoh hama musim kemarau seperti belalang, ulat, aphids, thrips, spider mites, white fly, lalat buah, pengorok daun, dan lain sebagainya. Namun ada kasus tertentu ada hama yang berkembang pada musim hujan seperti fungus gnats dan shore fly. Dimana perkembangan hama ini lebih dikarenakan ketersediaan makanan berupa lumut yang berkembang dalam kondisi lembab. Berdasar kondisi di atas, pengendalian hama selain menggunakan insektisida, cara lain adalah dengan membersihkan lingkungan (sampah organik dan gulma). Contoh lalat buah berkembang pada buah yang busuk, spider mites bertahan pada gulma bayam liar, dan lain-lain. Selain itu mencegah lingkungan media tanam atau sekitar tanaman terlalu lembab yang bertujuan mencegah serangan fungus gnats dan shore fly. Post By teguh

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BUDIDAYA ANTHURIUM

Di alam anthurium mudah tumbuh pada media batang pepohonan yang telah membusuk atau tumbuh di pepohonan dan bersifat epifit. Oleh karenanya pembudidayaan tanaman ini tidaklah sulit. Meskipun pembudidayaan tanaman relatif mudah namun cara pembudidayaan yang baik perlu dikuasai agar tanaman yang dibudidayakan dapat tumbuh baik sehingga mampu menampilkan keindahan yang prima. Untuk hal itu maka perlu pemahaman tentang morfologi tanaman, syarat tumbuh, media tanaman, penanaman, cara perawatan dan pengendalian hama penyakit. SYARAT TUMBUH Kebutuhan Cahaya Untuk mendapatkan cahaya yang sesuai, pembudidayaan yang dilakukan pada daerah dataran rendah membutuhkan bangunan dengan atap naungan paranet 60-70%. Untuk dataran sedang menggunakan naungan paranet 50%. Sedang untuk dataran tinggi cukup digunakan atap paranet 25%. Jika cahaya terlalu banyak, daun akan menguning dan kering, sebaliknya bila cahaya kurang daun nampak lemas dan pucat, serta daun dan tangkainya cenderung memanjang. Kebutuhan Suhu Suhu lingkungan yang optimal berkisar antara 18º-31º C. penampilan daun akan lebih mengkilap bilamana perbedaan suhu siang dan malam tidak terlalu mencolok. Kondisi ini akan membantu membentuknya klorofil sehingga warna daun menjadi lebih hijau dan mengkilap. Untuk hal itu maka bilamana suhu siang terlalu tinggi, pada lingkungan pertanaman perlu ditambah kipas angin untuk menurunkan suhu. Kebutuhan Kelembaban Kelembaban udara yang cocok untuk pertumbuhan si raja daun ini berkisar antara 60%-80%. Bilamana kelembaban udara terlalu kering maka perlu penyemprotan air di sekitar tanaman. Sebaliknya bila terlalu lembab perlu dipasang kipas angin. Sirkulasi Udara Angin semilir akan memberikan kondisi yang baik bagi tanaman, karena dengan adanya angin yang bertiup perlahan akan membuat hawa yang sejuk. Oleh karena itu peranan kipas angin yang dipasang di lingkungan pertanaman akan berperan ganda, yakni menyejukan udara, menjaga kelembaban udara dan menjaga suhu udara. David Noor Mubarok

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Argyroderma theartii Van Jaarsv.

Family : Mesembryanthemaceae Common names : baby-toes ( Eng. ); bababoudjies (Afr.) Argyroderma theartii is a beautiful, dwarf, cluster-forming, winter growing succulent plant, bearing striking, bright purple-pink flowers during the early winter months. It thrives in well drained soil and should only be watered during the autumn and winter and kept dry during the summer months. Description Dwarf, rounded cluster-forming succulent plant, bearing 3-10 grey-green heads up to 80 mm in diameter. Leaf pairs fused into a neat cylindric body (up to 35 x 20 mm) with its greatest diameter near the top. The leaf pairs are free and rounded towards the top. Flowers are produced singly, appearing from a fissure between the leaf pairs. It is rose-like, about an inch (25 mm) in diameter, bearing many oblong, narrow, brightly coloured purple-pink petals. The flower is succeeded by its capsule (fruit). Once dried out, the capsule is hygrochastic (term used to explain the opening mechanism of the expanding keels of the capsule lids by means of moisture), only releasing the seed during rain. The capsule ripens during spring and releases seed with each shower of rain. It is top-shaped and 9-12 mm in diameter. The seed are very small and protected within the capsule cavities. They are dispersed by falling raindrops which scatter seed in all directions (the method found in water pistols). This is an amazing adaptation (of most mesembs), where the plant makes use of the energy of the falling raindrops to scatter its seed. Status Although the plant is locally common among the sunny quartz gravel flats in its natural habitat, it is confined to a single farm on the northern Knersvlakte (Afrikaans name for region), thus it needs some form of protection. Fortunately it is easily grown from cuttings or seed. Distribution and Habitat Confined to quartz gravel hills and flats, growing scattered in full sun. It is associated with other dwarf succulent plants such as Argyroderma craterfiormis, A. fissum, Tylecodon reticulatus, T. occultans, Conophytum subfenestratum, Cephlalophyllum caespitosum, Crassula columnaris subsp. prolifera, C. deceptor, C. muscosa, Conophytum minutum. C. calculus, Oophytum nanum, Drosanthemum diversifolium, Adromischus marianiae and Antimima dualis . Rainfall is mainly during winter (May to September) and averages between 50-70 mm per annum. The summers are dry and very hot (up to 40º C on hot days). Winters are cooler but warm during the day and if frost occurs, it is very light and for short periods. Derivation of name and historical aspectsArgyroderma theartii was discovered in 1990 by Major Jan Theart (9 th South African Infantry Battalion), a keen gardener and succulent enthusiast. Argyroderma theartii is one of 12 known Argyroderma species all confined to quartz gravel flats of the northwestern part of the Western Cape . This region is known as the knersvlakte (literally meaning grinding flats, and pertaining to the grinding of the quartz gravel when walked upon). The genus name Argyroderma is Greek, derived from, argyros , silver, and derma, skin, pertaining to its silvery grey-green leaves. The genus was established by Dr N.E. Brown, a botanist from the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew in 1922. Argyroderma species are popular among succulent enthusiasts due to their appealing, small, sculptural, plant bodies. They grow well camouflaged among the white quartz pebbles. Other popular species include A. delaetii, A. pearsonii, A. patens, A. framesii and A. fissum . The genus Argyroderma is part of the mesemb family (Mesembryanthemaceae) and almost all of its members are confined to southern Africa and its centres of diversity in the winter rainfall region of South Africa and Nambia. EcologyArgyroderma theartii is conspicuous when in flower and pollinated by bees and small beetles. Seeds are dispersed during the first autumn rains. The small seeds germinate among the gravel and look like stones when small, thus very difficult to detect. Its silvery grey-green skin is tough and reflects the sun effectively during the warm dry summers. Uses and cultural aspects Argyroderma theartii is grown by succulent enthusiasts mainly as a potplant. The soil needs to be well-drained sand with quartzitic gravel added. A loam-based garden soil mixed with sand and gravel is ideal. Seed should be sown during the autumn. Germination is within three weeks and the small plants can be transplanted after a year. Sow seed in shallow trays in a sandy mixture. Cover with a thin layer of sand (2 mm) and water by capillary action (place bottom of seed tray in a shallow bucket of water for a while, until sufficient water has been absorbed). Keep in a sunny corner. Water sufficiently during the first winter but keep dry during the summer. The young seedlings can be planted out after a year. Cuttings can be made from leaf pairs during autumn. Cut from as close to the base as possible. Allow to dry out for a week. Plant in sand and water well. Keep in a sunny corner. Rooting should take place within a month. Outside of its habitat it is best grown in a glasshouse. Argyroderma theartii is best grown as a potplant. It also thrives in miniature gardens grown with companion plants such as Crassula and other dwarf mesembs such as Conophytum . It can be grown in rockeries only if the rainfall and climate allows it. Gardens within the karoo region or similar situations are ideal. Soil should consist of gravel and sand with ample loam or clay. This plant needs a sunny site. Only water during autumn and winter and withhold water during summer months. Containers should be well drained. Place a gravel layer at base of container. Water sparingly during the cool months and a liquid organic fertilizer can occasionally be added. Plants can remain in the same container for a number of years. The plant skin should become wrinkly during this time but it is perfectly normal. Pests include the caterpillar of the tiger moth. It is easily controlled by hand or spraying with a contact poison. Author: Ernst van Jaarsveld Kirstenbosch National Botanical Gardens

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