Monday, March 31, 2008
Friday, March 28, 2008
Feature Writer: Barbara M. Martin
Wind and animals are the major agents of pollination. The flowers of wind-pollinated plants are usually small, greenish, lack fragrance, and have small petals or no petals. Oaks and grasses are examples of wind-pollinated plants. The wind generally does not carry pollen far, and so individual plants frequently grow close to one another to help guarantee pollination. Nevertheless, wind delivery of pollen to stigma is not a particularly precise procedure, and some plants have evolved more accurate pollination mechanisms-they employ animals as pollinators.
Flowers must be able to attract animals if animals are to be efficient pollinators. This has been accomplished through the evolution of flower colors, shapes, sizes, and fragrances that appeal to different animals. Plants use other strategies to lure pollinators to their flowers as well, including the production of sweet nectar and nutritious pollen. However, once an animal visits a flower and comes in contact with its pollen, it needs to visit another flower of the same species for pollination to occur. Inflorescences, more or less organized clusters of two or more flowers, may have evolved in many plants to ensure visits to different flowers. In some plant groups, such as the aster family, flowers have undergone a great deal of modification and are grouped together in "head-like" inflorescences that frequently look like a single flower. The sunflower, for example, is actually made up of hundreds of tiny, separate flowers. Animal pollination has advantages for both the plants and their pollinators. The plants are able to disperse their pollen accurately and widely. The animal pollinators benefit by having a reliable and easily recognizable food source. The development of this relationship between plants and animals has been one of the most important factors in of the evolution of both groups. This coevolution between plants and their animal pollinators has meant that flowers have become adapted to attract specific animals. For example, yellow flowers are primarily attractive to bees, while red flowers attract birds. Some plants produce nectar deep inside their flowers that can be reached only by hummingbirds (with their long bills) or long-tongued insects such as moths and butterflies. Once flowers have evolved to attract a specific pollinator, they must be able to continue to attract that particular pollinator or the chances for successful pollination will be drastically reduced.
Today, growing Phalaenopsis is within the reach of anyone who wants to try it—the exotic is not out of bounds. And current breeding efforts have produced exciting new cultivars, including an increasing variety of beautiful, waxy, yellow blossoms, prized by collectors such as Charles Marden Fitch, who photographs award-winning plants for the American Orchid Society. Current hybridization and breeding efforts also continue to aim at creating stripes, spots, and plants that bloom out of the usual January to March Phalaenopsis season, according to Gene Hausermann of Orchids by Hausermann, a Villa Park, Illinois nursery. Other trends include breeding for fragrance and miniature form. Recent hybridization with related genera has also been producing interesting flower formations. Crosses with Doritis, for example, produce plants with smaller but more numerous flowers on each spike. Phalaenopsis flowers are usually produced on single or on branched spikes. The number of flowers per plant varies from a few to as many as thirty. When in full bloom Phalaenopsis can be truly breathtaking to behold. Traditionally, the flowers have been white with reddish or rosy lips; hybridization is also making possible pinks, lavenders, and the aforementioned yellows. Most bloom in winter or early spring, setting spikes in the fall. Each plant will bloom at the same time year after year. Planting and Care The flowers can last for months, and while the plant is blooming the pot may be placed anywhere in your house or apartment to show at best advantage. When not blooming, plants require bright light, but not direct sunlight, which will burn the leaves, causing black spots. If you do not have enough natural light, Phalaenopsis adapt well to artificial light. Normal home temperatures are ideal. When Phalaenopsis are in spike, close observation of the buds will reveal that the lip (the one petal that is different from the other two) is on the top when the buds are formed. Just prior to opening, the bud rotates on the stem so that the lip is on the bottom. Some species will also produce plantlets on the flowering spikes, complete with leaves and roots. These small offshoots can be pruned and planted, but keep in mind that transition from plantlet to flowering specimen is a long process requiring several years and lots of patience. If you want to extend bloom time, plants can sometimes be coaxed into producing secondary flower spikes. When flowers are spent, feel along the spike for a node that has not produced flowers, but is slightly larger than the others. Cut the spike just above this node and wait for growth. The flowers on this secondary spike may not be of the quality of the original, but the results are still rewarding. To approximate their natural growing conditions, most orchids are planted in pots in a medium composed of bark chips of varying size. There are many mixes -- experiment to find one that works well for you. Phalaenopsis need to be repotted every two to three years. Either plastic or clay pots will do the trick. I prefer clay to plastic because clay gives me a better feel for when plants need water. Moth orchids require even moisture, but the excess water must drain away -- picture the plants growing on a tree branch and you will understand why. When repotting your orchid, wait until just after the plant has flowered. Fertilize with a dilute solution of orchid fertilizer once a week, especially when the plants are actively growing. Good air movement is essential. If you are a beginner, purchase a mature plant from a reputable grower. After you have had some orchid experience, you can buy seedlings, remembering that it takes time and patience to nurture these young sprouts to the flowering stage. But as any orchid lover will tell you, it's worth the wait. Further Reading To learn more about growing orchids, check your local library or bookstore for references. Probably the best source of information will be your fellow orchid growers; consider joining the American Orchid Society. Information is also available on the internet: OrchidWeb.org. The site contains helpful information about Phalaenopsis, including cultural information, book reviews, suggested plants, and more.
by Barbara Pesch
Tanaman rambat banyak digunakan sebagai naungan dan juga menjadi penutup dari satu tempat yang dirasa membutuhkan pelindung dari sinar matahari. Banyak macam dan ragam tanaman hias namun yang mampu berbunga lebat dan punya warna yang indah jumlahnya sangat terbatas. Salah satunya adalah Mandevilla Sandersi tanaman rambat berbunga dengan banyak pilihan warna. Tanaman rambat memang banyak digunakan untuk menciptakan suasana rumah yang asri. Disitu memang tanaman rambat akan lebih mendukung konsep tersebut karena mampu tumbuh rimbun dan mempunyai bunga yang berwarna cerah. Kesan yang muncul selain teduh juga mampu memberikan kombinsai warna yang menawan. Mandevilla sendiri disebut juga sebagai bunga terompet karena bunga yang muncul mirip seperti terompet. Tanaman ini diyakini berasal dari wilayah Florida, Amerika Serikat dengan kombinasi warna yang beragam mulai dari merah, putih, dan pink. Bentuk kelopak juga cukup beragam salah satunya mampu tumbuh menumpuk seperti halnya adenium dokson atau bunga mawar. Tanaman yang cukup melegenda di dunia landscape dan eksterior ini mempunyai karakter membutuhkan sinar matahari penuh untuk tumbuh. Kondisi ini tentu sangat cocok dengan fungsi tanaman sebagai naungan. Apalagi bila lokasi rumah berada di daerah perkotaan yang punya suhu udara sangat panas. Menurut Badrun Sutiyuko dari Aghissa Florist Banjarmasin yang menjual mandevilla, tanaman ini meski berasal dari wilayah yang dingin namun bisa tumbuh baik dengan lingkungan yang panas. Bahkan semakin banyak terkena sinar matahari warna yang muncul akan makin cerah. Secara fisiologis tanaman ini hampir tidak berbeda dengan tanaman merambat lainnya yaitu punya batang yang menjulur dan akar yang menempel pada tempat naungan. Kelebihan yang paling menonjol pada tanaman ini adalah bentuk bunga yang cukup besar. Meski disebut juga sebagai bunga terompet namun bentuk kelopak bunga juga hampir mirip dengan kembang sepatu (hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.) Tanaman yang di luar negeri juga disebut sebagai brazilian jasmine ini punya bentuk yang cukup menarik dimana untuk kelopak bunga akan memutar dan menutup satu dengan lainnya. Bunga akan muncul diujung tangkai sehingga semakin rimbun tanaman maka bunga akan muncul makin banyak dan serempak (bunga kompak). Pada bagian daun mandevilla punya karakter yang meruncing dengan serat daun yang menonjol. Disini daun yang tumbuh tidak terlalu mendominasi dibandingkan mekarnya bunga. Tidak seperti tanaman rambat lainnya yang lebih mendominasi adalah daun sementara bunga hanya muncul di beberapa bagian saja. Suka Panas
Thursday, March 27, 2008
* you may want seasonal maintenance because you are happy with your existing garden
* you may choose to have existing beds reshaped and re-planted
*you may choose to have an in-depth garden survey and then 'remodel' rather than re-design
Whatever your choice, the aim is to make your garden more attractive and enjoyable.
Gardening for homes If you don’t have the opportunity to do the work needed to keep your garden beautiful, or if you have ideas of what you’d like but don’t know how to carry it out, you can take advantage of a friendly, professional service to do all the necessary jobs throughout the year. There is always something to be done in the garden and whilst you love your garden, you might not have the time to keep it looking its best. In today’s busy world, employing a professional gardener to carry out the hard work necessary to keep your garden beautiful will let you and your family enjoy it all the more.
by Febbe Wallace
Tuesday, March 25, 2008
Analisa Komposisi Kimia Air Hujan dan Agroklimat terhadap Produksi Tanaman Buncis di Bandung Menggunakan Analisis Numerik
Toni Samiaji, Rosalina Naitutu, Nurlaini, Siti Asiati
Wednesday, March 19, 2008
What are some of the different hydroponic kits available?
1. Deep water culture kits
One method of hydroponics is deep water culture. The crown of the plant is suspended over the nutrient solution by a net. The net is placed in a hole in the center of a plastic lid, which fits on top of a plastic bucket. The roots remain in the solution to soak up nutrients, which is the plant's food. In order for plants to thrive with this gardening method, the solution must be aerated in some manner, because the movement of the liquid helps to bring the nutrient to the plant roots, allowing them to feed and oxygenates the liquid as well.
You can have one bucket or several buckets linked together in deep water culture gardening. When several buckets are used, the water is typically recirculated through all of them using spray nozzles, which helps to aerate the liquid.
2. Aeroponic gardening kits
Aeroponics is a subset of hydroponics where plants' roots, rather than being suspended in the liquid nutrient, are instead suspended in air. The roots are regularly misted with nutrient, as an alternative to floating in solution typically found in hydroponics systems. Plants grow very quickly using this type of growing system.
3. Ebb and Flow kits
This method of hydroponics was inspired by large farms that use irrigation as a means for watering outdoor crops. With ebb and flow kits, there is a pan of nutrient solution and above this pan is a tray that holds plants that are planted into some type of growing medium, such as rockwool or coir. A pump is called into play to fill the tray holding the plants with nutrient solution, and after it fills the solution drains back down into the pan. Because of the movement of the solution into and out of the tray, ebb and flow provides its own means of aeration of the nutrient solution.By Susan Slobac
There are a wide variety of indoor gardening supplies suitable for any type of indoor gardening you practice, whether a traditional greenhouse, hydroponics, or others. By Susan Slobac
In case you plan to revive your garden with some pink flowers, you should definitely alternate several species in order to avoid creating a very blank look. Pink and red roses for instance make an excellent combination, most particularly since they stay in bloom all summer long. Pink flowers in pots make great decorations for garden alleys, the patio or the gazebo, they are fresh in appearance and seem to pass their energy onto their viewer. Moreover, depending on the plant species you'll have to take some extra care during the cold season, and even take the pots indoors. Pink flowers make excellent gifts to young ladies and teenagers, as they carry that girlish and innocent look about them. Many flower arrangements for birthday parties or proms use a combination of various pink flowers; the color in itself stands for good health, blushes and optimism. It is also the active symbol in the fight against breast cancer and it is recognized and worn as such by millions of women all over the world. The color intensity for pink flowers depends on your choice: light pink is somehow suave whereas darker tones have a more striking visual effect. For weddings and girl baptizing ceremonies pink colors often make excellent arrangements both in church as well as at the party afterwards. In the case of themed weddings pink flowers can be alternated with other daring tones like purple as they make a great match together; even the design of the wedding invitations could include the stylized picture of pink roses. The splendid decorative effect of pink flowers relies on the ability of this color to suggest a mood and create the elegant effect that not too many shades would. By Muna wa Wanjiru
Monday, March 17, 2008
Factors affecting growthThe genotype of a plant affects its growth, for example selected varieties of wheat grow rapidly, maturing within 110 days, whereas others, in the same environmental conditions, grow more slowly and mature within 155 days.
Growth is also determined by environmental factors, such as temperature, available water, available light, and available nutrients in the soil. Any change in the availability of these external conditions will be reflected in the plants growth.
Biotic factors (living organisms) also affect plant growth.
Plants compete with other plants for space, water, light and nutrients. Plants can be so crowded that no single individual makes normal growth.Many plants rely on birds and insects to effect pollination. Grazing animals may affect vegetation. Soil fertility is influenced by the activity of bacteria and fungi. Bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes and insects can parasitise plants. Some plant roots require an association with fungi to maintain normal activity (mycorrhizal association).Simple plants like algae may have short life spans as individuals, but their populations are commonly seasonal. Other plants may be organized according to their seasonal growth pattern: Annual: live and reproduce within one growing season. Biennial: live for two growing seasons; usually reproduce in second year. Perennial: live for many growing seasons; continue to reproduce once mature. Among the vascular plants, perennials include both evergreens that keep their leaves the entire year, and deciduous plants which lose their leaves for some part of it. In temperate and boreal climates, they generally lose their leaves during the winter; many tropical plants lose their leaves during the dry season.
The growth rate of plants is extremely variable. Some mosses grow less than 0.001 mm/h, while most trees grow 0.025-0.250 mm/h. Some climbing species, such as kudzu, which do not need to produce thick supportive tissue, may grow up to 12.5 mm/h.
Plants protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose is common). LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing.
Internal distributionVascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem. They also have roots for taking up water and minerals. The xylem moves water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant, and the phloem provides the roots with sugars and other nutrient produced by the leaves.
All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. About three hundred plant species do not photosynthesize but are parasites on other species of photosynthetic plants. Plants are distinguished from green algae, which represent a mode of photosynthetic life similar to the kind modern plants are believed to have evolved from, by having specialized reproductive organs protected by non-reproductive tissues.
Bryophytes first appeared during the early Palaeozoic. They can only survive where moisture is available for significant periods, although some species are desiccation tolerant. Most species of bryophyte remain small throughout their life-cycle. This involves an alternation between two generations: a haploid stage, called the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, called the sporophyte. The sporophyte is short-lived and remains dependent on its parent gametophyte.
Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period, and by the Devonian had diversified and spread into many different land environments. They have a number of adaptations that allowed them to overcome the limitations of the bryophytes. These include a cuticle resistant to desiccation, and vascular tissues which transport water throughout the organism. In most the sporophyte acts as a separate individual, while the gametophyte remains small.
The first primitive seed plants, Pteridosperms (seed ferns) and Cordaites, both groups now extinct, appeared in the late Devonian and diversified through the Carboniferous, with further evolution through the Permian and Triassic periods. In these the gametophyte stage is completely reduced, and the sporophyte begins life inside an enclosure called a seed, which develops while on the parent plant, and with fertilisation by means of pollen grains. Whereas other vascular plants, such as ferns, reproduce by means of spores and so need moisture to develop, some seed plants can survive and reproduce in extremely arid conditions.
Early seed plants are referred to as gymnosperms (naked seeds), as the seed embryo is not enclosed in a protective structure at pollination, with the pollen landing directly on the embryo. Four surviving groups remain widespread now, particularly the conifers, which are dominant trees in several biomes. The angiosperms, comprising the flowering plants, were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within the gymnosperms during the Jurassic and diversifying rapidly during the Cretaceous. These differ in that the seed embryo (angiosperm) is enclosed, so the pollen has to grow a tube to penetrate the protective seed coat; they are the predominant group of flora in most biomes today.
When the name Plantae or plants is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness, these three groupings are:
Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta. As the narrowest of plant categories, this is further delineated below. Green plants - also known as Viridiplantae, Viridiphyta or Chlorobionta - comprise the above Embryophytes, Charophyta (i.e., primitive stoneworts), and Chlorophyta (i.e., green algae such as sea lettuce). It is this clade which is mainly the subject of this article. Archaeplastida - also known as Plantae sensu lato, Plastida or Primoplantae - comprises the green plants above, as well as Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (simple glaucophyte algae). As the broadest plant clade, this comprises most of the eukaryotes that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria. Informally, other creatures that carry out photosynthesis are called plants as well, but they do not constitute a formal taxon and represent species that are not closely related to true plants. There are around 375,000 species of plants, and each year more are found and described by science.
A flower is regarded as a modified stem with shortened internodes and bearing, at its nodes, structures that may be highly modified leaves. In essence, a flower structure forms on a modified shoot or axis with an apical meristem that does not grow continuously (growth is determinate). Flowers may be attached to the plant in a few ways. If the flower has no stem but forms in the axil of a leaf, it is called sessile. When one flower is produced, the stem holding the flower is called a peduncle. If the peduncle ends with groups of flowers, each stem that holds a flower is called a pedicel. The flowering stem forms a terminal end which is called the torus or receptacle. The parts of a flower are arranged in whorls on the torus. The four main parts or whorls (starting from the base of the flower or lowest node and working upwards) are as follows:
Calyx: the outer whorl of sepals; typically these are green, but are petal-like in some species. Corolla: the whorl of petals, which are usually thin, soft and colored to attract insects that help the process of pollination. Androecium (from Greek andros oikia: man's house): one or two whorls of stamens, each a filament topped by an anther where pollen is produced. Pollen contains the male gametes. Gynoecium (from Greek gynaikos oikia: woman's house): one or more pistils. The female reproductive organ is the carpel: this contains an ovary with ovules (which contain female gametes). A pistil may consist of a number of carpels merged together, in which case there is only one pistil to each flower, or of a single individual carpel (the flower is then called apocarpous). The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen. The supportive stalk, the style becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma, to the ovules, carrying the reproductive material. Although the floral structure described above is considered the "typical" structural plan, plant species show a wide variety of modifications from this plan. These modifications have significance in the evolution of flowering plants and are used extensively by botanists to establish relationships among plant species. For example, the two subclasses of flowering plants may be distinguished by the number of floral organs in each whorl: dicotyledons typically having 4 or 5 organs (or a multiple of 4 or 5) in each whorl and monocotyledons having three or some multiple of three. The number of carpels in a compound pistil may be only two, or otherwise not related to the above generalization for monocots and dicots.
An example of a perfect flower, this Crateva religiosa flower has both stamens (outer ring) and a pistil (center).In the majority of species individual flowers have both pistils and stamens as described above. These flowers are described by botanists as being perfect, bisexual, or hermaphrodite. However, in some species of plants the flowers are imperfect or unisexual: having only either male (stamens) or female (pistil) parts. In the latter case, if an individual plant is either female or male the species is regarded as dioecious. However, where unisexual male and female flowers appear on the same plant, the species is considered monoecious.
Additional discussions on floral modifications from the basic plan are presented in the articles on each of the basic parts of the flower. In those species that have more than one flower on an axis—so-called composite flowers—the collection of flowers is termed an inflorescence; this term can also refer to the specific arrangements of flowers on a stem. In this regard, care must be exercised in considering what a ‘‘flower’’ is. In botanical terminology, a single daisy or sunflower for example, is not a flower but a flower head—an inflorescence composed of numerous tiny flowers (sometimes called florets). Each of these flowers may be anatomically as described above. Many flowers have a symmetry, if the perianth is bisected through the central axis from any point, symmetrical halves are produced—the flower is called regular or actinomorphic, e.g. rose or trillium. When flowers are bisected and produce only one line that produces symmetrical halves the flower is said to be irregular or zygomorphic. e.g. snapdragon or most orchids.
Red roses are given as a symbol of love, beauty, and passion. Poppies are a symbol of consolation in time of death. In the UK, Australia and Canada, red poppies are worn to commemorate soldiers who have died in times of war. Irises/Lily are used in burials as a symbol referring to "resurrection/life". It is also associated with stars (sun) and its petals blooming/shining. Daisies are a symbol of innocence. Flowers within art are also representative of the female genitalia, as seen in the works of artists such as Georgia O'Keefe, Imogen Cunningham, Veronica Ruiz de Velasco, and Judy Chicago, and in fact in Asian and western classical art. Many cultures around the world have a marked tendency to associate flowers with femininity.
The great variety of delicate and beautiful flowers has inspired the works of numerous poets, especially from the 18th-19th century Romantic era. Famous examples include William Wordsworth's I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud and William Blake's Ah! Sun-Flower.
Because of their varied and colorful appearance, flowers have long been a favorite subject of visual artists as well. Some of the most celebrated paintings from well-known painters are of flowers, such as Van Gogh's sunflowers series or Monet's water lilies. Flowers are also dried, freeze dried and pressed in order to create permanent, three-dimensional pieces of flower art.
The Roman goddess of flowers, gardens, and the season of Spring is Flora. The Greek goddess of spring, flowers and nature is Chloris.
In Hindu mythology, flowers have a significant status. Vishnu, one of the three major gods in the Hindu system, is often depicted standing straight on a lotus flower. Apart from the association with Vishnu, the Hindu tradition also considers the lotus to have spiritual significance. For example, it figures in the Hindu stories of creation
Only two groups of algae are considered close relatives of land plants (embryophytes). The first of these groups is the Charophyta (desmids and stoneworts), from which the embryophytes developed. The sister group to the combined embryophytes and charophytes is the other group of green algae (Chlorophyta), and this more inclusive group is collectively referred to as the green plants or Viridiplantae. The Kingdom Plantae is often taken to mean this monophyletic grouping. With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose, have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and store food in the form of starch. They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae.
The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The same is true of two additional groups of algae: the Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta. All three groups together are generally believed to have a common origin, and so are classified together in the taxon Archaeplastida. In contrast, most other algae (e.g. heterokonts, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, and euglenids) have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae.
En caso de contratar únicamente el servicio de asesoría, este tiene un valor de us $ 400 diarios mas gastos de transporte y viáticos
La asesoría abarca todos los procesos productivos y de mercadeo, desde el analizar y escoger las especies que se deben sembrar según el tipo de explotación y mercado objetivo hasta los procesos de postcosecha y empaque.
All chemical reactions need an energy source to drive them.
On Earth, most primitive animals and plants get their energy by absorbing ultra-violet light from the Sun. This is called 'photosynthesis'. Humans and other animals get their energy by eating plants, or other animals. So all animals ultimately rely on energy from the Sun to live.Stage 2: combining these ingredients to make lifeLife finds a wayUntil recently, it was thought that life couldn't exist anywhere that was shaded from the Sun's light. However, scientists have recently discovered organisms living deep beneath the ocean. These organisms absorb energy directly from chemicals in the water around them.